1 疏导公众心理 defuse (public) anger/discontent; to properly channel
2 诚信缺失 lack of credibility
3 发展为了人民、发展依靠人民、发展成果由平民共享 development for the
people, by the people and to the benefit of the people
4 调匀互赢 all-win harmony; harmony and all winners
5 完毕社会公正与公正 ensure equity and justice
6 廉政文化建设 foster a culture of clean government
7 减少社会分化景况 reduce social inequalities
8 调匀相处 live in harmony
9 和谐社会的内涵 the characteristics of a harmonious society
10 和实生物，同则不继（东周周左徒史伯） Harmony generates and sameness
11 和为贵 Harmony is most precious; Peace is to be cherished.
12 和也者，天下之达道也（《中庸》） Harmony is the Way to be. (The
Doctrine of the Mean)
13 君子和而分化 Gentlemen seek harmony but not uniformity.
14 和则两利 Reconciliation benefits both; Peace benefits both.
15 和则生谐 Reconciliation leads to harmony.
16 天人合一 the unity of man/human and nature; Heaven-Man Oneness(书面);
Heaven and man are one. (口译)
Harmony is a defining/core value of China’s cultural tradition. It is an
ideal that the Chinese nation has never ceased to pursue.
“Harmony is most precious”. This means that mutual help and friendly
co-existence between states, nations and people should be our ultimate
19 和而各异 harmony in diversity/harmony without uniformity
“Harmony generates vitality”. This means that only with mutual
interaction and enrichment can different civilizations rejuvenate and
continue to grow.
To build a harmonious world, we should uphold democracy and equality to
enhance cooperation and coordination; ensure amity/fertility and mutual
trust to achieve common security; uphold justice and mutual benefit to
advance common development; and stay open to facilitate dialogue among
A harmonious country should be one of laws and stability, peace and
prosperity. A harmonious world should be one of democracy, peace,
justice and tolerance.
23 中国人发起“海纳百川，有容乃大”，主张接受百家优长、兼集八方精义。 We
Chinese hold that one should be as tolerant / encompassing as the vast
ocean which admits hundreds of rivers and should draw upon other’s
24 和谐凝聚力量，和谐成就伟业。 Harmony rallys strength and leads to
25 中国倾心愿意包容、博采各样文明之长 China is eager to draw on/upon
the strengths of other civilizations.
2 关于“xxx 观”的译法
1 科学发展观 scientific outlook on development
2 倡议公平、合理的新秩序观 call for the establishment of a new just and
3 以平等互利为骨干的新升高观 new thinking on development based on
equality and mutual benefit
4 牵动建立以互信、互利、平等和合作为机要内容的新安全观 foster a new
thinking on security featuring mutual trust, mutual benefit, equality
5 主张形成以器重各类性为特征的新文明观 foster a new thinking on
civilization that respects diversity
6 新能源观 new thinking on energy development
7 古为今用、洋为中用 旧译 let the ancient serve the present, let the
foreign serve the national，现译 draw from past and foreign achievements
8 文艺工作 cultural and art work; work in the cultural field
9 扎实把握先进知识的前进方向 firmly keep to the direction of an advanced
10 文化与经济和政治相互交融 interaction between cultural work, and
economic and political activities / cultural elements/factors
intermingle with economic and political factors
11 民族的不利的群众的社会主义文化 a socialist culture that is distinctly
Chinese, pro-science and people-oriented
12 弘扬主旋律，提倡二种化 promote mainstream values and uphold cultural
Equip/empower people with scientific theories, guide them with correct
opinions/ convey to them right messages/provide them with correct media
guidance, imbue them with a noble spirit and inspire them with
14 具有中国作风的社会主义文化 Chinese-style socialist culture; socialist
culture with Chinese appeal
15 越是中华民族的，越是世界的 The pride of a nation is also the pride of the
world. / What’s unique for a nation is also precious for the world. /
When you are unique, the world comes to you.
16 文艺应当靠拢群众，贴近生活，贴近实际。 Culture and arts should
be/keep close to the people, their lives and reality.
17 艺术滋润心灵，文化磨炼情操。 Art nurtures the soul and culture
cultivates the mind.
18 文化是维持中华民族生生不息、蔓延不断的饱满纽带。 Culture is the
spiritual bond that ensures the continuity of our Chinese nation.
19 大家无法割断民族的知识血脉。 We must never sever the cultural vein of
20 树立科学的宇宙观、人生观和观念 to foster a right/correct
outlook/view on the world, life and values
21 文化市场，文化贸易 cultural market, cultural trade
22 始终把社会效益放在第三位 always put social benefit first
23 扶持呈现民族特色和江山水平的最紧要文化品类和艺术院团 support
major/top-notch cultural projects and art troupes that represent
national characteristics and national level
1 文化体制改造 reform of cultural administrative system
2 文化（事业之中）机制创新 internal reform of cultural institutions
3 文化事业 public cultural undertakings
4 文化产业 cultural industries
5 文化事业单位 cultural institutions
6 社会知识和体育场馆事业 work of community culture and libraries
7 经营性文艺演出 commercial (art and cultural) performance
8 经营性文化单位 cultural enterprises
9 “全国舞台精品工程” Works of Excellence on the Nation’s Stage
10 “文化扶贫布署” Culture-aid Program/Cultural Aid Program
11 “全国文化音信资源共享工程” National Project for the Sharing of
Cultural Information and Resources
12 “国家清史纂修工程” National Project for the Recompilation of Qing
13 “三下乡”（文化、科技、卫生） Bringing Culture/Science and
Technology/Hygienic Health to the Countryside
14 “群星奖” Galaxy Award (for amateur artists and community culture)
15 “文华奖” Splendor Award (for professional theatrical artworks)
16 “荷花奖” Lotus Award (for professional dance)
17 “孔雀奖” Peacock Award (for ethnic minority artists and artworks)
18 “八个一工程奖” the Best Works Award
19 “八个一百” “A Hundred Patriotic Films/Songs/Books” List
20 县县都有俱乐部、体育场馆，乡乡都有文化站。 There should be cultural
center and library in every county and cultural station in every
21 文物爱抚方针“爱戴为主，抢救第一；合理选拔，抓好田间管理。” ”principles
for the protection of cultural heritage: “preservation with timely
rescue; utilization under strict control”.
22 全国重点文物爱护单位 important heritage site under state protection
23 全国一流文物尊敬单位 Class A Heritage site under state protection
24 国家一级爱护文物 Class A heritage/cultural property under national
25 爱惜和振兴地点戏剧 protect and rejuvenate local operas
26 曲艺 Quyi folk show, chuyi folk show (folk ballads and story-telling,
27 讴歌时代 extol/hail/sing praise to (the progress of) the times
28 国家一级影星 National Class-A Actor/Actress/Performer/Artist
29 晚会 Evening performance, Soiree, Gala Night/Evening
30 总策划 Producer
31 策划 Executive Producer
32 顾问 Advisor
33 主办 under the auspices of / sponsored by / hosted by
34 协办、支持 co-sponsored by, supported by
35 承办 presented by
36 监制 supervised by
37 创意 event/concept designed by
38 对外文化交易 international cultural trade
39 对外文化传播 international cultural communication
40 对外文化宣传 international cultural publicity
41 小额文化扶持 small-fund aid for cultural development
1 百折不挠科学进步、和谐提升、和平发展 Pursue scientific, harmonious and
2 周密落实科学发展观 Fully apply (put into practice) the Scientific
Outlook (Thinking) on Development
3 要旨财政2003—二零零六年超收较多 The central government revenue exceeded
targets by a fair amount for the years 2003 through 2006.
4 防止经济增加由偏快转为过热 Prevent rapid economic growth from becoming
5 整顿小煤矿取得了阶段性成果 Major progress has been made in the current
stage of our efforts to bring order to small coalmines.
6 真实 Pursue a realistic and pragmatic approach
7 解放思想 Free our minds
8 TV覆盖从行政村向自然村延伸 电视 coverage extends from incorporated
villages to unincorporated villages.
9 不搞一刀切 without imposing a single solution
10 保险百姓的知情权﹑加入权﹑说明权和监督权 Ensure people’s right to
know, to participate, to express and to supervise.
11 抓牢支农、惠民政策 Strengthen the policy of supporting agriculture
and benefiting farmers
12 单位 Organizations and institutions
The path of peaceful development has both external and domestic
dimensions. Thus, we must bear closely in mind our overall interests,
both internal and external.
14 那种社会风气文明的各种性是不以人们主观意志为转移的客观存在。 Like it or
not, the diversity of civilizations is a reality.
15 对外宣传工作 conduct public diplomacy programs
16 解决惠农难题 to improve people’s well-being
17 “召远在修近，闭祸在除怨。” “To win distant friends, one needs, first
of all, to have good relations with his neighbors. To avoid adversity,
one needs to ease animosity.”
18 我的脑子里充满了令人担忧。 I am preoccupied with pressing challenges.
19 到……挂职 to take up provisional post in
20 非政坛社团 / 民间协会 / 群众协会 /人民团体 NGOs / civil society /
people’s organizations / civic organizations
21 巡视员 inspector
22 调研员 researcher
23 经理科员 principal staff
24 副老董科员 senior staff
25 科员 staff member
26 编内职工 permanent staff
27 中编办 Central Staffing Department
28 编制人数 staff size
29 国家行政编制 government staff status
30 事业编制 staffing of government affiliated institutions
31 党政正职领导干部 chief Party and government officials
1 拉动经济社会发展切实转入科学发展轨道 To truly put economic and social
development on a scientific track
2 科学民主决策 Make decisions scientifically and democratically
3 中央 The national leadership/The central Party and government
authorities/The central government
4 我们要更上一层楼老龄事业 We will develop old age programs.
5 大家不可能不以对国家和平民中度负总责的动感拔取强硬措施解决那一个题材 We must
maintain a strong sense of responsibility to the country and people and
take forceful measures to resolve these problems.
6 大力解决惠民难题 伊夫ry effort was made to improve the people’s
7 当局本身建设存在部分题材 Government efforts to enhance performance
still have room for improvement.
8 存在这个题材历来在于制度不完善，幽禁不做到 The root cause of the
problems lies in institutional deficiencies and poor oversight.
9 长官干部要深远基层明白民众疾苦 Leading officials should visit
communities to better understand the problems troubling the people.
10 抓好基层民主 Expand democracy at village and community level
11 不少开销增进是刚性的 Many increases in expenditure are fixed /
12 积极妥善推进集团政策性破产工作 Actively yet prudently proceed with
work related to policy-mandated bankruptcy of enterprises.
13 对产能过剩行业进行结合 To carry out restructuring of industries with
surplus production capacity
14 淘汰煤炭行业落后产能 Close down backward production facilities in the
15 为增加经济拉长后劲发挥举足轻重意义 Play an important role in sustaining
China’s economic development
16 规范收入分配秩序 Standardize pattern of income distribution
17 历史少见的不得了自然患难 Natural disasters of a severity seldom seen in
18 实施治理商业贿赂专项行动 A campaign to combat business bribery was
19 入股消费关系不调和 Investment is not in keeping with consumer demand.
20 政党职能转变滞后 Moves to change the way the government functions are
behind schedule/have not made expected progress.
21 向国民交出满意的答卷 To deliver a good report to the people
22 政坛办事的基本思路是 The basic approach for the work of government
23 关怀中国现代化建设 To care about China’s modernization
24 城市最低生活有限接济制度 System of basic cost of living allowances for
25 周密推向社会主义经济建设、政治建设、文化建设 Promote all aspects of
socialist economic, political and cultural development
26 稳定消费预期，扩展即期消费 We should ensure consumer confidence and
expand immediate consumption.
27 以更高昂的精神状态恪尽责守 We must carry out our duties with greater
28 依照经济运行的新景观周全政策 Improve policies in response to new
developments in the operation of the economy
29 把各项政策落实 Truly put all policies into effect
30 妥善处理内需和外需的涉及 Properly balance domestic demand and
31 统筹考虑国内外经济前行的并行联系和影响 Take into consideration the
interconnectedness and mutual influence of domestic and international
32 加强以下多少个地点 We should concentrate on the following areas:
33 解决出口退税历史欠帐 Resolve long-standing arrears in export tax
34 放宽市场准入 Relax control over market entry
35 改变外贸拉长方式 Change the way China’s foreign trade grows
36 指引银行加大对农业贷款扶助 Guide banks in continuing to increase
credit support to agriculture
hold high the great banner of Chinese socialism, follow the guidance of
Deng Xiaoping Theory and the important thought of Three Represents,
(thoroughly) apply the Scientific Outlook on Development, continue to
free our minds, persist in reform and opening up, pursue development in
a scientific way, promote social harmony, and strive for new success in
building a well-off society in all respects
2 是现代中国前进更上一层楼的指南，是全党全国各族人民团结奋斗的指南 the banner
guiding the development and progress of China and rallying the whole
Party and people of all ethnic groups in the country in our common
3 当代华夏正在爆发大面积而深入的变革 China now is going through a
wide-ranging and deep-going transformation
4 抓住和用好第世界首次大战略机遇期 seize and make most of the opportunities in
this important strategic period
5 锐意进取 forge ahead with determination
6 就关乎全局的机要难题作出决定和配置 make decisions and action plans on
issues of overriding importance
7 提出并促成科学发展观等关键战略思想 formulate and apply the Scientific
Outlook on Development and other major strategic thoughts
8 经济效益显明狠抓 Economic performance improved markedly / remarkably.
9 区域发展协调性增强 Regional development became more balanced.
10 自主立异能力 capacity for independent innovation
11 载人航天航空成功促成 Manned spaceflights were successfully conducted
12 能源资源节约和生态环境爱护 energy and resources conservation and
ecological and environmental protection
13 农村综合改造 comprehensive reforms in rural areas
14 农业税、牧业税、特产税全体撤回 Agricultural tax, livestock tax and
taxes on special agricultural products were rescinded throughout the
15 支农惠民政策 policies to support and benefit agriculture, rural areas
16 非公有制经济 the non-public sector of the economy
17 城乡居民最低生活有限支撑制度 the system of basic living allowances for
urban and rural residents
18 衣食住行用水平不断增强 enjoy better food, clothing, housing,
transport and other daily necessities / better access to…
19 政治体制改正 Reform of political institutions
20 民族区域自治制度 the system of autonomy of ethnic regions
21 基层民主 community-level democracy
22 中国特色社会主义法律系统 a socialist system of laws with Chinese
23 依法治国基本方略扎实落实／深远落到实处 The rule of law was effectively
implemented / will be carried out as a fundamental principle. reform of
the government administration system and the judicial system
24 行政管理体制、司法体制改造 reform of the government administration
system and the judicial system
1 马克思主义理论研究和建设工程 the Project to Study and Develop 马克思ist
2 思想道德建设 efforts to raise ideological and ethical standards /
promote ideological and ethical progress
3 全社会文明程度进一步进步 The educational and ethnical standards of the
whole society have been raised.
4 文化体制立异 reform of cultural administrative system
5 精神文化生活越来越助长 enjoy a richer cultural life
6 平民健身和比赛体育 public fitness programs and competitive sports
7 神州特点队伍容貌革命 the revolution in military affairs with Chinese
8 收缩军队员额二十万义务顺遂达成 The armed forces were reduced by
9 阵容革命化、现代化、正规化建设 Make the armed forces/army more
revolutionary, modernized and standardized
10 全方位外交 all-directional diplomacy
11 党的建设新的伟大工程 A great new Party-building Program
12 党的当家能力建设 endeavors to strengthen the Party’s governing
13 理论立异和驳斥武装 make theoretical innovations and educate Party
members in them
14 保持共产党员先进性教育活动 the campaign to educate Party members in
preserving / to retain their vanguard nature
15 党内民主 intra-Party democracy
16 领导班子和干部阵容建设 strengthen the Party’s leading bodies and the
ranks of Party officials to enhance capacity-building of Party’s leading
bodies and Party officials
17 党风廉政建设 build a fine Party culture and keep its organizations
18 一些基层党协会软弱涣散 Some community level Party organizations are
weak and lax.
19 党的创设力、凝聚力、战斗力 the creativity, cohesion and competence of
20 谱写了民族自强不息、顽强奋进新的亮丽 compose a new epic of the
Chinese nation’s heroic efforts
Historic changes have taken place in the Chinese people, socialist China
and the CPC.
22 保持和发展党的先进性 preserve and enhance / maintain and develop the
Party’s vanguard nature
23 确保党始终走在一代前列 ensure that the Party is always in the
forefront of the times
24 劳苦探索社会主义建设规律 painstaking exploration of the law on the
building of socialism
25 社会主义基本制度 the basic system of socialism
26 当代华夏上上下下提高进步 every step forward, every progress
27 确立社会主义初级阶段基本路线 formulate the basic line for the primary
stage of socialism
28 吹响走自己的路的一世号角 sound the clarion call of the times and take
our own road
29 受命于重点历史关头 take over the helm at a critical historical
30 国内外政治事件、经济风险等严苛考验 the severe tests of political
turbulences and economic risks at home and abroad
31 引领改良开放的客轮沿着正确方向破浪前行 steer the ship of reform and
opening up forward on the right course
32 发扬求真务实、开拓进取精神 promote the truth-seeking, pragmatic and
33 周详改造的进度所向无前地开展了 The sweeping reform has unfolded with
34 沿江(长江)沿边 areas along the Yangtze River and the national borders
35 对外开放的大门毅然决然地开拓了 With resolve and determination, China
opened her door to the world.
Today, a new socialist China stands rock-firm in the East, embracing
modernization, the world and the future.
37 国惠民存从温饱不足发展到总体小康 The Chinese people, once
inadequately fed and clad, are generally leading a fairly comfortable
1 稳定地走上了富裕吕梁的常见道路 move steadily toward prosperity and
不断探索和答复什么是社会主义、如何建设社会主义，建设怎样的党、如何建设党，达成怎么样的向上、怎么着发展等根本理论和骨子里问题constantly seek answers to major theoretical and practical questions
such as what socialism is and how to build it, what kind of party we
must build and how to build it, and what kind of development Chinashould
achieve and how to achieve it
3 党的基本理论、基本路线、基本纲领、基本经验 Party’s basic theory, line,
program and experience
4 社会主义和马克思主义在炎黄大世界上精神出勃勃生机 Socialism and 马克思ism
have shown vigor and vitality in China.
5 大踏步赶上时代前进风尚 catch up with the trend of the times in big
6 相符党心民心 accord with/echo the aspirations of the Party members and
7 强调百姓首创精神 respect the people’s initiative/pioneering
8 提升全中华民族文明素质 to improve the educational and ethical standards of
the whole nation
9 开拓了华夏特点社会主义道路 blaze a trail of socialism with Chinese
characteristics open a path of…
10 形成了中国特色社会主义理论连串 theoretical system of Chinese
11 建设富强民主文明协调的社会主义现代化国家 make China a prosperous,
strong, democratic, culturally developed and harmonious modern socialist
12 实践永无止境 Practice knows no bound.
13 勇于变革、勇于创新 make bold changes and innovations
14 不为任何危害所惧，不被其余纷扰所惑 fear no risks and never be
confused by any interference
15 使中华风味社会主义道路越走越宽广 broaden our path of socialism with
16 让当代中国马克思主义放射尤其烂漫的真哈苏芒 Let the truth of 马克思ism
of contemporary Chinashine more brilliantly.
17 马克思主义关于进步的世界观和方法论的集中体现 a concentrated
expression of the 马克思ist world outlook and methodology with regard to
18 同……一脉相通 in the same line as…
19 立足社会主义初级阶段基本国情 fully recognize the basic reality that
China is in the primary stage of socialism
20 粗放性拉长措施 the extensive mode of growth/inefficient model of
21 革新攻坚 further reform in difficult areas
22 大公无私各地方利益 accommodate the interests of all parties
23 农业基础薄弱的范畴没有更改 The foundation of agriculture remains weak
24 思想活动的独立性、选取性、多变性、差别性显然拉长 become more
independent, selective, changeable and diverse in thinking
25 社会结构、社会公司形式、社会利益情势 the structure of society, the
way society is organized and interests of different social groups/and
the mix of social interests
26 发达国家在经济科技(science and technology)上占优势的压力长时间存在 Pressure caused by the
economic and scientific dominance of developed countries will continue
for a long time to come
experience far-reaching changes in the productive forces and the
relations of production, as well as in the economic base and the
28 人民日益增加的物质文化须求同落后的社会生产之间的顶牛这一社会主要争辩Chinese society’s principal problem/challenge is the gap between the
ever-growing material and cultural needs of the people and the low level
of social production
29 当前我国发展的阶段性特征 the salient features of the current stage of
development in China
30 妄自菲薄 belittle oneself
31 自甘落后 be resigned to backwardness
32 脱离实际、急功近利 unrealistic pursuit of quick results
1 共同建设、共同享有的尺度 the principle of all the people building a
harmonious …and enjoy its benefits
2 着力解决国民最关注、最间接、最切实的补益难点 spare no effort to solve
most practical problems of the utmost and immediate concern to the
3 形成一体公民各尽其能、各得其所而又和谐相处的框框 cultivate/foster an
environment in which all people do their best, are content with their
lives/enjoy what they do and live together in harmony
4 进步革新决策的科学性，增强改进措施的协调性 make decision-making more
scientific and measures of reform better coordinated
5 周密进步开放程度 improve the work of opening-up
6 把改良百姓生活作为正确处理革新升高安定团结关系的结合点 We need to
improve…as we endeavor to balance…
7 两全把握科学发展观的科学内涵和精神实质 fully appreciate/understand the
essence of the Scientific Outlook on Development
8 把全社会的上进积极率领到科学发展上来 guide the whole society in
pursuing development in a scientific way
9 把握经济社会发展趋势和公理 follow the trend and the law of economic
and social development
uphold the basic program consisting of the basic objectives and policies
for economic, political, cultural and social progress under socialism
with Chinese characteristics
11 区域协调互动发展机制 a mechanism for promoting balanced and
interactive development among regions
12 主体效用区 development priority zones
13 法治政坛建设 enhance law-based government administration
14 社会主义宗旨价值种类长远人心 Core socialist values are winning the
hearts and minds of the people.
15 弘扬杰出思想道德前卫 promote moral integrity
16 建设生态文明 promote a conservation culture
17 生态文明观念在全社会石城汤池树立 To foster public awareness of
18 具有更高文明素质和饱满追求 Raise ethical standards and have
19 对外越发开放、尤其富有亲和力 be more open and friendly to the outside
Strengthen the foundation for building a well-off society of a higher
level in all respects to the benefit of over one billion people
21 建设立异型国家 make China an innovative nation
22 国家中长时间科学和技巧进步规划纲要 Outline of the National Program for
Long- and Medium-Term Scientific and Technological Development
23 突破制约经济社会发展的关键技术 make breakthroughs in key technologies
vital toChina’s economic and social development
24 扶助前沿技术商量、社会公益性技术切磋 support research in frontier
technology and in technology for public welfare
25 建立以商店为中央、市场为导向、产学研相结合的技术创新种类 establish a
market-oriented system for technological innovation, in which
enterprises play the leading role and which combines the efforts of
enterprises, universities and research institutes
26 指引和协助创新要素向同盟社聚集 guide and support the pooling of factors
of innovation into enterprises
27 科技(science and technology)成果产业化 the application of scientific and technological
achievements in production
28 培育构建世界头号物理学家和科技(science and technology)领军官才 train / bring up world-class
scientists and leaders in scientific and technological research
29 使立异智慧竞相迸发、立异人才多量涌现 inspire creativity and bring
forth large numbers of innovative personnel
30 推进音讯化与工业化融合 promote IT-based industrialization
31 具有国际竞争力的大商家公司 internationally competitive conglomerates
1 压实农业基础地位 strengthen the position of agriculture as the
foundation of the economy
2 形成城乡经济社会提升全体新布局 make progress in integrating
economic and social development in urban and rural areas
3 促进农业科学技术进步 promote advances in agriculture-related science and
4 增强农业综合生产能力 improve overall agricultural production
5 壮大县域经济 expand county economies
6 多渠道转移农民就业 create more jobs for rural surplus labor force
7 提升扶贫开发水准 make poverty reduction more effective through
8 革新国有林权制度 reform the system of collective forest use rights
9 坚韧不拔农村中央经营制度 uphold the basic system for the rural economy
10 发展适用规模经营 develop appropriately scaled operations
11 农民专业合营团队 specialized farmers’ cooperatives
12 接济农业产业化经营和龙头公司发展 support the industrialization of
agriculture and the development of leading agribusinesses
give prominence to building a resource-conserving, environment-friendly
society in our strategy for industrialization and modernization and make
every organization and family to act accordingly
14 开发和放大节约、替代、循环利用的先进适用技术 develop and extend
advanced and appropriate technologies for conserving, substituting and
recycling energy and resources
15 发展环保产业 develop environmental conservation industries
16 促进生态修复 promote restoration of the ecosystems
17 优化国土开发格局 improve land development program
18 已毕基本公共服务均等化 ensure equal access to basic public services
19 南边大开销 large-scale development of western China/China’s western
20 促进中央地区崛起 boost the development of the central region
21 突破行政区划界限，形成几何带引力强、联系紧密的经济圈和经济带 Break
administrative divisions to form a number of close-knit economic rims
and belts that will boost the development of the surrounding areas
22 辅助资源缺乏地区达成经济转型 help transform the economies of areas
where natural resources are exhausted
23 增强综合承载能力 increase the overall carrying capacity of cities
24 以特大城市为依托，形成辐射成效大的城市群，培养新的经济增加极 form
city clusters with mega-cities as the core so that they can boost
development in surrounding areas and become new poles of economic growth
25 坚贞不屈同等怜惜物权 ensure equal protection of property rights
26 深化民有集团公司制股份制改造 deepen the reform to introduce the
corporate and shareholding systems in SOEs
27 增强国有经济活力、控制力、影响力 enhance the dynamism, leverage and
influence of the state sector of the economy
28 国有资本经营预算制度 budget system for managing state capital
29 发展各个方式的集体经济、合营经济 develop collective and cooperative
economic operations in diverse forms
30 个体、合资经济 self-employed and other private businesses/private
31 以现代产权制度为根基，发展混合所有制经济 develop the economic
sector of mixed ownership based on the modern system of property rights
1 形成统一开放竞争有序的当代市场序列 develop a modern market system
that is unified and open and that allows orderly competition
2 完善生产要素价格形成机制 improve the pricing regime/mechanism for
factors of production
3 行业社团和市场中介协会 industry associations and commercial
4 建立健全资源有偿使用制度和生态环境补偿机制 set up a sound system of
compensation for use of resources and for damage caused to the
5 形成各个所有制的现代金融系列 build a modern financial system
consisting of different forms of ownership
6 逐步落实资金项目可兑换 gradually make the RMB convertible under
7 健全和从严市场准入制度 improve and strictly enforce market access
8 举办对外开放广度和纵深 expand opening up in scope and depth
9 增加开放型经济水平 improve our open economy
10 把“引进来”和“走出去”更好组合起来 ensure better coordination in
pursuing the “bring in” and “go global” strategies
11 加速培育我国的国际盛名品牌 speed up the launching of Chinese brand
names in the world market
12 促进国际收支基本抵消 maintain a basic balance in international
13 人民民主是社会主义的人命 People’s democracy is the lifeblood of
14 基层民众自治制度 the system of community level self-governance
15 持之以恒党总揽全局、协调各方的领导大旨功能 uphold the Party’s central
role in exercising overall leadership and coordinating work in all
16 过去的五年是不平庸的五年 The past five-years has been a
momentous/no ordinary one.
17 国际环境复杂多变 The international environment is complex and
18 认真贯彻十七大精神 diligently follow the guidelines set out at the
17th Party Congress
19 收获了强烈的巨大成就 We have made major achievements that
attracted the world’s attention.
20 终结了农民务农缴税的野史 ended the centuries-old practice of
farmers paying taxes for tilling their land
21 起步突出 A good start was made in the efforts to…
22 综合国力(经济)跨上新台阶 China’s overall national strength
(economy) reached new heights.
23 中国的国际地位和熏陶不断压实 China’s international standing and
influence continue to grow.
24 取得了有国际影响的科技(science and technology)成果 We have achieved a lot in scientific and
technological innovation that have captured world attention
25 公共卫生体系初始建立 The basic elements of a public health system
have been put into place.
26 依法行政，扎实牵动 Progress was made in rule-of-law administration.
27 开放(型)经济进来新阶段 China has entered a new stage in opening up
We have worked hard to make macro-economic regulation / macro-control
more proactive, responsive and effective, with focus on resolving
major problems affecting economic performance.
1.在世界首先完结经济回涨向好 China was among the first in the world to
see the economic turnaround.
outstanding achievements in the past six decades have greatly boosted
the confidence and pride of the people.
3.自住性住房消费 owner-occupied homes/houses
4.有限支撑性住宅 low-income housing
5.经济适用房 affordable housing
6.抑制部分行业产能过剩和另行建设 to restrict excess production capacity
and redundant development in some industries
7.节能产品惠农工程 project to promote energy-efficient products for the
benefit of the people
8.国家补贴节能产品 Government-subsidized energy-efficient products
9.很快照明灯具 compact fluorescent lamp
10.磨难防御能力 disaster preparedness
11.体裁机制 institutions and mechanisms
12.体制障碍 institutional barriers
13.创业板 The ChiNext stock market
14.共用林权制度改善 the reform of tenure in collective-owned forests
15.对外工程承包营业额 receipts from overseas project contracts revenue
from overseas contracted projects
16.经贸金融合营 economic, trade and financial cooperation
17.囊括农民工在内的村镇集团职工养老保证关系转移接续办法 method to ensure
portability and continuity of pension accounts for urban enterprise
workers, including rural migrant workers
18.棚户区 run-down areas
19.更是推进教育公平 We made education more equitable.
20.社会正常秩序 maintain order in society
21.统筹国内国际八个大局 consider both domestic and international
22.既强调统一考虑、顾全大局，又鼓励因地制宜、探索创新 While stressing
unity in thinking and keeping overall interests in mind, we also need to
encourage localities to be innovative and act in line with their own
23.社会风气经济布局大变革、大调整 major changes in the global economic
24.伸张股权和债券融资规模 increase financing by selling equities and
25.商厦离休人口 enterprise retirees
26.整顿和规范市场秩序 overhaul and better regulate the market
27.家电下乡产品 government subsidized
28.推进经济进入立异使得、内生增进的前进轨道 put economic development
onto the track of endogenous growth driven by innovation.
29.抢占经济科技(science and technology)制高点 capture the economic, scientific and technological
30物联网 the Internet of Things
31.打好节俭减排攻坚战和持久战 strive to conserve energy and reduce
32.拉动基本公共服务均等化 ensure fair access to basic public services
33.强农惠农政策 policies to aid agriculture and benefit farmers
34.保障“米袋子”、“菜篮子”安全 secure food supply
35.推向农民就业创业 help rural residents find jobs or start their own
36.实践改革基因生物新品类作育科学和技术重大专项 carry out a major project to
breed genetically modified varieties
37.有布置有步骤地化解好农民工在城镇的就业和生存难点 We will promote
employment for rural migrant workers in urban areas and address their
problems in a planned and step-by-step manner.
38.再解决6000万乡村人口的安全饮用难点 provide safe drinking water to
another 60 million rural people
39.科教兴国战略和红颜强国战略 the strategies of reinvigorating China
through science and education and strengthening the nation through human
40.唯有一级的教诲，才能作育一级人才，建设世界级国家 First-class education
is a prerequisite for cultivating high-caliber personnel and building a
41.坚称育人为本，大力促进素质教育 We will continue to give top priority
to ensuring the healthy growth of students and promote well-rounded
42.增加师德教育to improve the professional ethics of our teachers
有助于以商店为焦点、市场为导向、产学研相结合的技术立异种类建设 develop a
system of technological innovation in which enterprises play the leading
role, the market provides orientation, and the efforts of enterprises,
universities and research institutes are integrated
43.建设人力资源强国 make our country strong in human resources.
社会保险系列 social safety net
部族的凝聚力和向心力 the cohesiveness of the Chinese nation
结构性减税 selective tax cuts
增强科技(science and technology)协理 increase input for science and technology
提升社会有限支撑水平 increase social security benefits
有限帮助性住房 low-income housing; government subsidized housing
廉租房 low-rent housing
经适房 affordable housing
限价房 price-capped housing
公租房 public rental housing
棚改房 housing in run-down areas that will undergo renovation
实惠弥补外需缺口 to effectively compensate for weak external demand
股指期货 stock index futures
融资融券 securities margin trading
跨境贸易人民币结算试点 the trials of settling cross-border trade
accounts in RMB
养老有限支撑关系跨省转移接续 portable pension account (PPA)
城市化布局和形状 patterns and forms of urbanization
人才战略 human resources strategy
美貌教育 professional education
人才作育 talent fostering; staff development
浓眉大眼培训 personnel training
美貌之家 Home for Talent
人才拔取 personnel selection
浓眉大眼项目 personnel types
红颜竞争力 talent competitiveness
高级人才 high-end professionals/personnel; top talents
复合型人才 versatile professionals; personnel of multiple skills
塞别人才 overseas talents
人才库 talent pool
美貌管理 personnel/human resources management
红颜投资 talent investment
浓眉大眼政策 personnel policy
美貌发展 talent development
尊重人才 value talents/talented people
党管人才 human resources under the Party leadership
新政人才 Party and government officials
青年英才 young talents
高素质教育人才 high-quality educators
异域高层次人才 high-quality overseas professionals
全民健康干净人才 national health professionals
高技能人才 the highly skilled; highly skilled workers
商厦经营管理人才 enterprise management talents
正规技术人才 professional and technical talents
高素质军事人才 military talents
专业医药人才 professional medical personnel
立异型科技(science and technology)人才 innovative skilled sci-tech workers
须求缺少专门人才 professionals in short supply
人才阵容建设 building of talent team
美貌工作管理体制 talent administration
人才工作机制 talent management
重点人才工程 major projects for talent development
各项型、多层次人才队伍容貌 a skilled, diversified and multilevel
江山中长时间人才发展设计纲要（2010-2020） National Program for Medium
and Long-term Talent Development (2010-2020)
五洲留学人才之家 overseas Chinese students’ home
中国国际人才调换协会 China Association for International Exchange of
中原国际人才沟通大会 Conference on International Exchange of
中国和扶桑人才培养奖学金项目 Japanese grant aid for human resource
development scholarship (JDS) program
全国人才阵容建设统筹纲要 National Program for Qualified Personnel
科教兴国战略和人才强国战略 The strategy of reinvigorating China
through science, education and human resources
载人航天 manned space mission
探月工程 lunar exploration program
结构性、输入性物价上升 structural and imported inflation
重点产业调整振兴规划 the plan for restructuring and reinvigorating
政党斥资引导拉动社会投资 government spending guided and drove
科研成果达成了产业化 a large number of research results have been
applied in industrial production
工业“三废” industrial wastewater, waste gases and residues
主导效率区 development priority zones
县级要旨资金有限支撑机制 a mechanism for ensuring basic funding for
对外工程承包和服务同盟营业额 the total turnover of overseas
construction/project and labor contracts
新型农村社会养老有限协理 a new type of pension insurance for rural
老有所养、病有所医、住有所居 伊芙ryone has access to old-age care,
medical treatment and housing
行政问责 administrative accountability system
不合规征地拆迁 illegal land expropriations and housing demolitions
内阁调控与市场机制的有机统一 closely integrate government control
with market forces
激起经济内在活力 stimulate the (internal) vitality of the economy
加快形成消费、投资、出口协调牵动经济提升的新局面 to quickly realize
economic growth driven by consumption, investment and exports
raise the proportion of national income distributed to individuals and
increase the proportion of wages in the primary distribution of income
拉长政策范围内的医保基金支付水平 increase payment percentage/level
in the medical insurance fund within authorized package
营造社团多元、服务便捷、禁锢审慎、风险可控的金融连串 develop a
financial system featuring diverse organizations, efficient service,
prudent supervision and risk-control
develop a sound, flexible mechanism for setting prices for resource
products capable of reflecting supply and demand in the market, resource
scarcity, and the cost of environmental damage
内阁我改造建设 government reforms and self-improvement
从制度上转移权力过分集中而又得不到制约的场景 make institutional
changes to end the excessive concentration of power and lack of checks
有限支撑适宜的财政赤字和国债规模 keep the deficit and government bonds
at appropriate levels
公务接待费 hospitality spending
清除输入性、结构性通胀因素的不利影响 overcome the adverse effects of
imported and structural inflation
消除输入性、结构性通胀因素的不利影响 overcome the adverse effects of
imported and structural inflation
“米袋子”委员长负责制和“菜篮子”参谋长负责制 the system of provincial
governors taking responsibility for the “rice bag” (grain supply)
program and city mayors taking responsibility for the“vegetable basket”
(non-grain food supply) program
农产品流通系统 farm products distribution
落到实处了“十二五”时期可以初步 got the 12th Five-Year Plan period
(2011-15) off to a good start
努力做到调控审慎灵活、适时适当 conduct prudent and flexible
macro-control on a moderate scale and in a timely fashion
适时适当预调微调 carry out timely and appropriate anticipatory
adjustments and fine-tuning
提升环境保证主要工作的观点 the Guidelines on Strengthening Key
Environmental Protection Tasks
淘汰落后产能 close down outdated production facilities
基层医疗卫生机构 community-level medical and health care institutions
确立社会扶助和保持标准与物价回涨挂钩的联动机制 institute a mechanism
to increase social aid and social security benefits when consumer prices
三公经费 spending on official overseas trips, official vehicles and
完善升级开放型经济水平 make comprehensive improvements to China’s
商家“走出来”步伐加快 Chinese companies expanded overseas presence.
主权债务危害长时间内难以缓解 It will be hard to ease the sovereign
debt crisis any time soon.
用好重点战略机遇期 make the most of this important period of
We will comprehensively advance socialist economic development,
political, cultural and social progress, and raise ecological awareness.
对行政事业性收费和政坛性基金拓展清理 investigate the collection and
use of administrative fees and operations of government-managed funds
为市场主体提供越多的汇率避险工具 provide more tools for market
participants to hedge foreign exchange risks
完美 adopt a holistic approach
即时化解苗头性、倾向性难题 promptly resolve emerging issues that
signal unfavorable trends
走出一条生产发展、生活殷实、生态美好的文明前行征程 take a path of
civilized development which ensures that production increases, people’s
living standards rise, and we live in a good ecological environment
资源环境和人口承载能力 the carrying capacity of China’s resources,
environment and population
铆劲推行素质教育 energetically implement well-rounded education
择校 pay to enroll one’s children in better schools
发起学术诚信 advocate academic integrity
强化人才体制立异 deepen reform of the personnel management system
落到实处好、维护好、发展好最广大百姓的根本利益是以人为本意见的实际显示Putting people first is about realizing, upholding, and promoting their
政务诚信、商务诚信、社会诚信 government, business, and public
知识是人类的精神家园 Culture gives human beings a sense of
十全十美文化传承是一个部族生生不息的血缘 Passing on fine culture is
essential in maintaining the everlasting vitality of a nation.
铆劲形成知荣辱、讲正气、守诚信、作进献、促和谐的精美风气 strive to
create a social atmosphere that promotes morality, integrity, dedication
促进各个所有制经济共同升高 promote the common development of
economic entities under diverse forms of ownership
规范收入分配秩序 ensure that income distribution is governed by
老百姓的知情权、出席权、表达权和监控权people’s rights to stay informed
about, participate in, express views on, and oversee government affairs,
and corrupt practices in law enforcement
社会事业 social services/programs
不止拉长政策的指向、灵活性和前瞻性 make our policies more targeted,
flexible, and forward-looking
实在拉动教育公平 make solid progress in making education more
理顺能源价格种类 base the energy pricing system on market supply and
理顺政党与市场的涉及 clearly define the roles/functions of the
government and the market
理顺政党与全民和社会公司的涉嫌 the government should properly handle
its relationship with the public and social organizations
逐步理顺煤电价格关联 make the price of electricity better reflect the
price of coal
清理、规范行政审批事项 review and standardize procedures of
展开债务清理整治 clear up debt obligations
加强中央公共服务均等化水平 make delivery of basic public services
more equitable; to ensure equal access to public service
放宽落户标准 relax restrictions on granting permanent residency
发布他们的主动效果 fully motivate them in doing sth.; keep them
motivated in doing sth.
连通和促成好帮忙港澳经济社会发展的延续串政策措施 implement coordinated
policies and measures for supporting the economic and social development
of 香港（Hong Kong） and Macao
创建社会接济和保全专业与物价回涨挂钩的联动机制 increase social aid
and security to offset price rises
resolve the problems of laws not being abided by or fully enforced,
lawbreakers not being prosecuted, abuses in law enforcement, dereliction
and neglect of duty, and corrupt practices in law enforcement
开展劳动关系争议排查 settle labor disputes
健全人才培育、任用、评价、激励机制 improve the mechanism for
training, employing, evaluating, and giving incentives to talented
公布各省特点和优势 fully tap the distinctive strengths of each
region; to optimize local distinctive strengths
囤积居奇、操纵价格、恶意炒作 hoarding and profiteering, manipulating
prices, and speculation
优抚对象 entitled group; recipient of government relief
增强城乡低保匡助水平 increase subsistence allowances for rural and
几次性生活津贴 one-off living allowances
要旨药物安全性提升、价格下降 Basic drugs became safer and more
挂职 to work on secondment
选任 election-based appointment
委任 direct appointment
考任 examination-based appointment
聘任 contract-based appointment
双向进入、交叉任职 cross appointment
基层陶冶have community-level working experience; get tempered on a
进入完美建成小康社会的决定性阶段 We have entered the decisive stage
of completing the building of a moderately prosperous society in all
respects; We have entered the decisive stage of achieving a moderately
prosperous society in all respects.
密集力量，攻坚克难 pool our strength to overcome all difficulties
世情、国情、党情 global, national and Party conditions
尤其奋发有为，兢兢业业地工作 aim higher and work harder
作出周全布局 adopt a comprehensive/an overall action plan
作出整体布局 adopt steps for general implement-ation
涉嫌全局的重大难点 issues of underlying/ overarch-ing/overriding
新时势下党的建设 Party building in a new environ-ment/under new
综合国力大幅进步 China’s overall strength has grown considerably.
生态文明建设扎实进行 Solid steps have been taken to promote
ecological progress/raise ecological awareness.
宏观调控种类 system of macro-regulation
过日子用口径分明改革 People’s need for daily necessities such as
clothing, food, housing and transport is better met.
乡野扶贫正式大幅度进步 Rural poverty line was raised by a big
政治体制革新 reform of the political structure; political structural
基层民主不断上扬 Community-level democr-acy has steadily developed.
文化建设迈上新台阶 Development of the cultural sector has reached a
文化体制改造周全促进 Comprehensive prog-ress has been made in the
reform of the cultural system.
黎民精神文化生活越来越丰盛多彩 People have richer intellectual pursuit
and cultural entertainment.
着力公共服务均等化程度可想而知升高 Access to basic public services has
become much more equitable.
免费职分教育周详完结 Free compulsory educ-ation is now available
across the country.
武装斗争准备不断加深 Military preparedness is enhanced.
创立两岸关系和平发展新局面 usher in a new stage of peaceful growth
of cross-Straits relations
在国际事务中的代表性和话语权进一步压实 We have secured more
representation and a greater say for China in international affairs.
便利的国际环境 favorable international condi-tions/environment
拉长党的干部阵容 strengthen the ranks of Party officials
迈入中不平衡、不和谐、不各处难题如故卓绝 Unbalanced, uncoordinated
and unsustainable development remains a big/major/prominent problem.
资源环境约束加剧 Resources and environ-mental constraints have
become more serious.
涉嫌群众切身利益的难题 problems affecting people’s immediate
有些天地黯然腐败现象易发多发 Some sectors are prone to corruption
and other misconduct/malpractices.
反腐败斗争时势依旧严俊 The fight against corruption remains a
challenging task for us.
克制一多级主要挑衅 successfully met major challenges
国际形势风云突变 We face a volatile intern-ational environment.
规范把握我国发展的阶段性特征 We have gained a good understanding of
the essential/salient features of China’s development in the current
回复外部经济风险冲击 defuse/stand external economic risks
具有这几个突显了中华风味社会主义的远大优越性和强硬生机 All this
shows the superiority and vitality of socialism with Chinese
时代特征 the underlying trend of our times
牢固扭住经济建设那些焦点，百折不挠收视返听搞建设，心驰神往谋发展 We must
pursue economic development as the central task and concentrate on it
with every determination.
执行科教兴国、人才强国战略 We must implement the strategies for
making China strong by developing science and education and training
We must fully implement the overall plan for promoting economic,
political, cultural, social, and ecological progress.
开拓生产发展、生活富裕、生态可以的文武前行征程 expand the path of
sound development that leads to increased production, prosperity and a
把完善作为贯彻科学发展观的有史以来办法 take a holistic/ integrated
approach as the fundamental way of applying the Scientific Outlook on
统筹 balance/coordinate relations between
百折不挠所有从事实上出发 We should base our-selves on reality in
everything we do.
丰裕调动各地点的主动 keep all parties fully motivated
形成全路公民各尽所能、各得其所而又协调相处的范畴 to ensure that all
people do their best, find their proper places in society and live in
Freeing up the mind, seeking truth from facts, keeping up with the times
and being realistic and pragmatic—these are the salient/essential
features of the Scientific Outlook on Development.
执行升高永无止境，认识真理永无止境，理论立异永无止境 There is no end
to practice, to seeking truth, or to making theoretical innovation.
握住时代前进须求 respond to the call of the times
商讨和把握中国风味社会主义规律 to explore and master laws governing
socialism with Chinese characteristics
历经千辛万苦 endure untold hardships and sufferings
始建生动的新局面 create a dynamic new environ-ment in which…
开创周详改造开放的新局面 usher in a new phase/open a new horizon in
carrying out all-round reform and opening up
加速生态文明建设 promote ecological pro-gress; speed up ecological
conservation; raise ecological awareness
咱俩既不走封闭僵化的覆辙，也不走改旗易帜的邪路 We reject both the
old and rigid closed-door policy and any attempt to abandon socialism
and take an erroneous path.
逐渐达成成套公民共同富裕 achieve pro-sperity for all over time/in
它以崭新的视野深化了对国共执政规律的认识 It offers from new
perspectives a deeper understanding of the laws of governance by the
应对了建设怎么样的社会主义的平素问题 It has addressed the
fundamental issue of what kind of socialism to build.
华夏特色社会主义是现代中国升高发展的平素方向 Socialism with Chinese
characteristics is what we must pursue if we are to achieve development
and make progress in contemporary China.
咱俩要把握住以下为首须求 We should have a firm grasp of the
following basic requirements…
大家不能不坚定不移人民主体地位 We must ensure that the people maintain
their principal position in the country.
最广泛地鼓动和协会全员管理国家事务 mobilize and organize as many
people as possible to manage state affairs
要一味把立异开放精神贯彻到治国理政的各样环节 We should always apply
the spirit of reform and innovation to all aspects of governance.
社会公平正义 social fairness and justice
逐步创造以职分公平、机会公平、规则公平为主要内容的社会公平有限协理种类establish in due course a system for ensuring fairness in society
featuring, among other things, equal rights, equal opportunities and
fair rules for all
公平正义是华夏特点社会主义的内在须要 Fairness and justice are an
inherent requirement of socialism with Chinese characteristics.
社会协调是炎黄特点社会主义的本质属性 Social harmony is an inherent
attribute of socialism with Chinese characteristics.
担保百姓平等参加、平等发展义务 ensure people’s equal right to
participation in governance and to development
分配制度 system of income distribution
融汇所有可以团结的能力 rally all the forces that can be rallied
保障老百姓平安、社会安定有序、国家张掖久安 We should ensure that
the people live and work in contentment, the society is stable and
orderly, and the country enjoys enduring peace and stability.
和平发展是中国特色社会主义的必然选拔 Peaceful development is the
sure choice of socialism with Chinese characteristics.
大家要滴水穿石开放的进化，合营的进化，共赢的腾飞 We should pursue
development through opening up and cooperation to benefit all.
1.立党为公，执政为民。 The Party was founded for public good and it
exercises state power/governance for the people.
2.总揽全局 exercise leadership with a holistic view
The principle problem in our society is the backward production cannot
meet the ever-growing material and cultural needs of the people.
bear in mind under any circumstances the paramount reality that China
remains in the primary stage of socialism.
We must adhere to both the central task—economic development—and the two
basic points—the Four Cardinal Principles and the policy of reform and
opening up—in our great endeavor to build socialism with Chinese
We should remain true to our ideal, be firm in our conviction, never
vacillate in or relax our efforts or act recklessly, and we should forge
ahead/press forward with tenacity and resolve.
7.周密把握机会、沉着应对挑战，赢得主动、赢得优势 seize all
opportunities, respond with cool-headedness to challenges and gain
initiative and advantages
8.司法公信力应不止坚实 Public trust in the judiciary should be steadily
9.社会主义主题价值连串浓密人心 Core socialist values takes roots among
10.苍生文明素质和社会文明水平同理可得拉长 Both the level of civility and the
moral and ethical standards of the whole society should be significantly
11.中华文化走出来 take Chinese culture to the global stage
12.革除一切妨碍科学发展的思想观念和体制机制弊端 discard all notions and
remove all systemic barriers that hinder the pursuit of development in a
13.在更大程度更广范围发挥市场在资源配置中的基础意义 leverage to a
greater extent and in a wider scope the basic role of the market in
14.加速牵动社会主义民主政治制度化、规范化、程序化 work harder to enhance
socialist democracy in a systemic way by adopting due standards and
15.兑现国家各项工作法治化 ensure that all governance functions are
performed in accordance with law
16.中央建立现代知识市场种类 establish the basic framework of a modern
cultural market system
17.增速生态文明制度 move faster to set up a system for ecological
18.形成人与自然和谐进步现代化建设新布局 promote modernization featuring
harmonious development between man and nature
economic development as the central task is vital to national renewal,
and development still holds the key to addressing all the problems we
have in China.
Taking scientific development as the underlying guideline (not theme)
and accelerating the change of the growth model (not pattern of economic
development) as a major task(not main thread) is a strategic choice we
have made for promoting China’s overall development.
20.把推进发展的立足点转到进步质量和功用上来 ensure that development is
based on improved quality and performance
21.激起种种市场主体发展活力 fire all types of market participants with
new vigor for development
22.作育开放性经济腾飞新优势 create new favorable conditions for
developing the open economy
23.城乡区域发展协调互动 coordinated and mutually reinforcing urban-rural
harmonized/in step development of industrialization, IT application,
urbanization and agricultural modernization
more state capital in major industries and key fields that comprise the
lifeline of the economy and are vital to national security
26.承保各样所有制经济等同使用生产要素 ensure that economic entities
under all forms of ownership have equal access to factors of production
27.健全中心和地点资产与事权相匹配的体裁 ensure that the central and
local governments have sufficient financial resources to exercise their
respective powers and responsibilities
28.财税种类 the fiscal and taxation systems
29.抓牢宏观调控目的和策略手段机制化建设 strengthen institutional
procedures for setting macro-regulation targets and employing policy
30.圆满推进中心公共服务均等化的公共财政序列 improve the public finance
system to ensure equal access to basic public services
31.形成有利于结构优化，社会正义的税收制度 improve the structure of the
taxation system to promote social equity
32.建立集体资源出让收入合理共享机制 establish a mechanism for equitable
sharing of proceeds from public resources transfers
33.巩固推进利率和汇率市场化改良 take steady steps to make interest rates
and the RMB exchange rates market-based
34.逐步完毕人民币资本项目可兑换 promote the RMB’s convertibility under
capital accounts in due course
35.科技(science and technology)创新必须摆在国家发展大局的骨干地点。 We must give science and
technology top priority in overall national development.
36.增高原始立异、集成立异和推介消化吸收再革新能力 increase capacity for
making original innovation and integrated innovation and for making
further innovation on the basis of absorbing advances in overseas
science and technology
37.大力创设以商店为宗旨，市场为导向，产学研结合的技术创新种类 We should
establish a system of technological innovation in which enterprises play
the leading role, the market points the way, and enterprises,
universities and research institutes work together.
38.宏观科学技术创新激励机制 improve mechanisms for rewarding scientific and
39.把全社会智慧和力量凝聚到履新提升上来 ensure that the wisdom and
strength of the whole society are directed to promoting
40.缓解制约经济健康持续上扬的显要结构性难点 resolve major structural
barriers to sustained and sound economic development
41.牢牢把握扩展内需那首次大战略重心 We should firmly maintain the strategic
focus of boosting domestic demand.
42.深化实体经济的须要导向 make the real economy more demand-driven
43.理搭架子建设基础设备和基础产业 make geographical/regional layout of the
development of infrastructure and basic industries more balanced.
44.前进现代音讯技术产业系列，健全音信安全有限协理连串 develop IT industry
and better ensure information security
45.有序推进农业转移人口市民化 conduct registration of rural migrant
workers as permanent urban residents in an orderly way
46.对老乡选用多与少取放活的方针 We should give more to farmers and take
less from them and lift restrictions over their business activities.
47.培育新型经营重点 oster new types of business entities
48.集约化、专业化、社团化、社会化相结合的新颖农业经营连串 a new type of
system for intensive agricultural operations that are specialized, well
organized and commercialized
49.多变以技术、品牌、质量、服务为主干的出口竞争新优势 make China’s
export more competitive in terms of technology, brand, quality and
50.增高利用外资综合优势和全体功用 We should make full use of our overall
advantageous position in utilizing foreign capital and make better use
of such investment.
51.统筹双边、多边开放同盟 make overall planning for bilateral and
multilateral opening up and cooperation
52.完善强化经济体制改善 deepen economic structural reform across the
53.前行更常见、更丰富、更周密的全员民主 make people’s democracy more
extensive, fuller in scope and sounder in practice
54.必须锲而不舍党的领导、人民当家作主，依法治国有机统一。 We must ensure the
unity of the leadership of the Party, the position of the people as
masters of the country and law based governance.
55.腾飞社会主义政治文明 promote socialist political progress/advance
56.护鲁国家法制统一、尊严、权威 uphold the unity, sanctity and authority
of the country’s legal system
57.承保人民依法享有广泛职务和任性 ensure that the people enjoy extensive
rights and freedoms as prescribed by law
We should place high importance on system building, give full play to
the strength of the socialist political system and draw on the political
achievements of other societies.
59.大家绝不照搬西方政治制度方式 We will never copy the 韦斯特ern political
60.狠抓对当局全规格预算决算的复核和监察 tighten examination and
oversight of all government budgets and final accounts
61.优化常委会、专委会组成人士知识和年龄结构 improve the age mix and
expertise of the members of the standing committees and special
committees of people’s congresses
62.促进商事民主广泛、多层、制度化发展 promote the extensive, multilevel,
and institutionalized development of consultative democracy
63.完美以员工代表大会为焦点格局的集团事业单位民总监理制度 improve the
democratic management system in enterprises and public institutions with
employees’ congress as its basic form
64.严刻标准公正文明执法 enforce laws in a strict, fair and civilized way
according to due procedures
We should ensure that leading officials are guided by law in both
thinking and action in their effort to deepen reform, promote
development, solve problems and maintain stability.
66.任何协会和私家都不可有超过行政诉讼法和法规的特权。 No organization or
individual has the privilege of overstepping the Constitution and laws.
67.绝不允许以言代法、以权压法、徇私枉法。 No one in a position of power
is allowed in any way to take his own words as the law, place his own
authority above the law or abuse the law.
China’s dream; the Chinese dream
China’s spirit; the spirit of China; China’s character; China’s soul
keep power in the cage of systemic checks; Power should be placed under
Power should be covered with antiseptic and be kept in a straitjacket;
Power should be insulated from corruption.
Getting things done is more important than shouting/yelling; Don’t just
shout/yell. Roll up sleeves and get things done!
Only the wearer knows whether his shoes fit.
One should not stick his head in the past when his body is already in
the 21st century.
Governing a big country is as delicate as frying a small fish; A big
country should be governed with the same care of frying a small fish.
Empty talk is harmful to the nation, while doing practical work will
make it thrive.
maintain strategic focus/confidence/composure; keep to our strategic
In fighting corruption, we should go after both tigers and flies, that
is, both the high and low-ranking officials who have benefited from
One should face up to his responsibility.
The iron must be of good quality to be hammered / struck into a tool.
Worms can only grow in something that is already rotten.
If you fall behind, you will be bullied. Only by developing yourself can
build positive energy to promote reform
The Communist Party of China should be open/receptive/responsive to
Reform and opening up are not missions accomplished. Rather, they are a
Step onto the stone and you should leave your footprint on it; clutch a
piece of iron and you should leave your handprint on it. This means one
should take forceful steps and deliver tangible results.
In learning about China, one should avoid making the mistake of the
blind men who tried to learn about the elephant by feeling/touching it.
A leader/leading official should exercise his responsibility with utmost
care/caution as if he were walking / treading on thin ice or standing on
the edge of an abyss/cliff.
We must not slacken our efforts or be negligent of duty in the slightest
We should fully dedicate ourselves to our work/duty/mission.
We should abide by the Constitution and be loyal to the people.
We should follow people’s wishes in exercising governance.
We will take it as our sacred mission to realize people’s aspiration for
a better life.
When/Where the government takes on a misplaced role, we should return
the hand misplaced on the government to the market.
This means cutting one’s power, which is quite painful, like cutting
one’s own arm. But we should have the resolve to do so. / But we are
determined to make such sacrifice.
Bones may be broken, but they are still linked by sinews. The
compatriots on both sides of the Taiwan Straits are siblings of the same
family, and there is no knot between them that cannot be untied.
This will push through the society’s moral and psychological limit.
Only when one is upright himself can he ask others to be upright.
Holding government/public office and making money should be kept
separate. You cannot have it both ways.
To ensure that the people lead a good life, the government should
tighten belt/practice frugality/practice austerity/practice economy
In pursuing reform, we have entered uncharted/deep waters. But we must
wade through these waters no matter how deep they are.
Taking away some of their vested interests is more difficult than
changing their way of thinking.
We need to upgrade China’s economy.
We should put in place an action forcing mechanism to make both
businesses and the government live up to their responsibilities.
Follow the fundamental truth, work for public good/put people’s
interests first and bring benefits to all the people.
Faced with a new environment and new tasks, we must deepen the reform
comprehensively at this new historical starting point, and continuously
strengthen confidence in the path of, theory on and system of socialism
with Chinese characteristics so as to finish building a moderately
prosperous society in all respects, and eventually make China a modern
socialist country that is prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally
advanced and harmonious, and realize the Chinese dream of the nation’s
great renewal (revival/revitalization).
We should have full confidence, forge consensus, make holistic planning,
and pursue development in a coordinated way. We will keep to the
direction of reform towards the socialist market economy, take the
promotion of social fairness, justice and improvement of people’s lives
as the starting point and ultimate goal, further free the mind, continue
to release and grow the productive forces, release and strengthen vigor
of society, overcome various systemic defects and institutional
deficiencies, and strive to open up broader prospects for the cause of
building socialism with Chinese characteristics.
We will deepen reform of the cultural sector to building the socialist
core values and make China a country with influential culture. We will
accelerate improvement of the system for managing the cultural sector
and the mechanism for cultural production and operation, establish a
sound modern public cultural service system and a modern cultural market
system and improve them, and thus bring about great development and
enrichment of socialist culture.
We will deepen ecological environment management reform to build a
beautiful China. We will accelerate system building to promote a sound
ecology, improve institutions and mechanisms for developing the
country’s territory, conserving resources and protecting the ecological
environment and promoting modernization featuring harmonious development
between man and nature.
We will always put people first, respect the people’s principal position
in the country, give full rein to their creativity, promote reform with
full support of the people, and promote well-rounded development of the
person. We should strike a balance between reform, development and
stability, implement reform boldly yet steadily, both strengthen
top-level planning and advance through a process of trial and error,
promote both comprehensive advance and breakthroughs at key points,
improve decision-making, form broad-based consensus and synergy for
carrying out reform.
China has entered a new phase in its development endeavors and a period
of overcoming major difficulties and a deep-water zone in its reform
drive. We must, with a strong sense of historical mission, pool the
wisdom of the entire Party and the entire society to the broadest extent
possible, mobilize all positive factors, be ready to face tough choices,
ford dangerous rapids, shatter fetters of an outdated ideological
mindset with greater determination, overcome the barriers of entrenched
interests, and promote the self-improvement and development of the
system of socialism with Chinese characteristics.
By 2020, decisive progress will have been achieved in the reform of
important areas and crucial links. The reform tasks put forward in this
Decision are to be completed within this period, and systems that are
structurally complete, procedure based and with effective operation will
be in place, to ensure that institutions in all areas become more mature
and well established.
The basic economic system with public ownership playing a leading role
and various ownership growing side by side is an important pillar of the
socialist system with Chinese characteristics and the foundation of the
socialist market economy. Both the public and non-public sectors are key
components of the socialist market economy and an important basis for
boosting China’s economic and social development. We must unswervingly
consolidate and develop the public economy, maintain the leading
position of public ownership, give full play to the leading role of the
state-owned sector, and continuously increase its vitality, leveraging
power and impact. At the same time, we must unwaveringly encourage,
support and guide the development of the non-public sector, and
stimulate its vigor and creativity.
An economy of mixed ownership with cross holding by and integration of
state-owned capital, collective capital and non-public capital is an
important form of China’s basic economic system. It enables state-owned
capital to expand function, maintain and increase its value and raise
its competitiveness, and it also enables capital of various ownership to
draw on one another’s strength, complement one another and develop
Rural collectively owned profit-oriented construction land will be
allowed to be transferred, leased and converted into shares, provided/on
the precondition that it conforms to planning and its use is regulated.
This is to ensure that it can enter the market with the same rights and
at the same prices as state-owned land.
Resolution of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on
Major Issues Concerning the Enhancement of all-round Law-based
make coordinated efforts to exercise law-based governance, political
power and administration
based on China’s realities
draw on the fine legacy of the Chinese legal culture
improve the socialist system of laws with Chinese characteristics, at
the heart of which is the Constitution/ with the Constitution at its
The people are major participants in conducting law-based governance and
provide the source of strength for it.
expand the definition of a bribe from “property” alone to “property
or/and other things of benefits”
upholding the legal system with the following features: administration
of justice is based on facts and law, findings are consistent with
facts, substantive justice is served as shown in the outcome of cases
handled and due procedures are observed in handling cases
intensify efforts to maintain law and order
press ahead with efforts to promote the socialist rule of law in China
establish a system of socialist rule of law with distinctive Chinese
build a country, government and society under the rule of law
The socialist market economy is a law-based economy.
apply the theory of developing socialist rule of law with distinctive
heighten public awareness of the rule of law
encourage people to have faith in shared ideals and convictions, live by
socialist core values and abide by the socialist rule of law
Using political integrity as an important criterion, we will select to
positions of leadership those who observe the rule of law in both
thinking and action.
competent personnel for enforcing the rule of law
Legislative, judicial and law enforcement personnel
personnel working to enforce the socialist rule of law
Only law-based governance and the rule of law under the leadership of
the Party can ensure that the people fully exercise their power as
masters of the country and that steady progress will be made in
promoting the rule of law in the country and society.
We should handle people’s complaints filed and concerns expressed
through letters or in person in accordance with the law to ensure that
their reasonable and legitimate complaints and concerns are addressed
according to due legal procedures and provisions.
Certain laws and regulations do not fully reflect objective laws or the
will of the people, are not well targeted and are weak in terms of
The law is vital to the governance of a country, and good laws are a
prerequisite for good governance.
We should let the people see that justice is served in every case tried.
We must resolutely crack down on brokering justice and prevent the
tunneling of interests/transferring of vested interests.
We must do away with all hidden rules and make it absolutely
impermissible to grant leniency by bending the law or handle any case
under the influence of personal connections, personal favor or bribe.
We must show zero tolerance towards judicial corruption and root out
emerging problems and adverse trend
Pursuing vested interests and vying for power while shirking
responsibilities by government departments concerned are major problems
affecting law making.
There are still problems of some officials knowingly breaking the law,
overriding the law with their own arbitrary views, placing power above
the authority of law and abusing the law for personal gains.
The leadership of the CPC is established by/provided for in China’s
thoroughly redress acts of nonfeasance and misfeasance/address inaction
and abuse of power
strengthen efforts to develop the system of socialist consultative
establish a sound system of benchmarks for exercising discretionary
Judicial justice enhances social justice, while judicial injustice
hold the law in awe and reverence and never challenge or cross the red
line of the law
We should raise the credibility standards of the public, keep a good
record of citizens’ and organizations’ observance of law and
credibility, and refine mechanism that commend those who obey the law
and have credibility and punish those who break the law or lose
credibility. This will ensure that the people willingly respect and
abide by the law.