《理学人》高校性骚扰,必要再一次教育(译文)

新生入学接受培训,如何防患被奸淫

在明尼苏达大学,约有5700名入学新生在本月早些日子到达高校参预迎新会,并且逐个人都在场了有关学校性骚扰的科目。1月1号,明尼苏克拉玛依发布了一项新的法规,强制规定每种大学在刚开学的十天要为一年级入学新生进行作育,州政坛对法令的广度范围有尤其的鲜明,但全国的学生,家长,和高等高校行政管理人士对于周边的高校性骚扰案是哪些爆发的和该做些什么提议了一样的难题。

内华达州在举国上下首先个通过了法律,口头引用”是,意味着是”,既须求肯定允许性活动的合法性。London在2014年紧随其后。二零一八年GeorgeWashington大学变成第一个就性骚扰难题对高等高校入学新生举行强制培训的学府。克Rim林宫也树立了有关维护学生免遭性侵略的尤其工作组。

犯罪数字注明,从性暴力方面讲,高校并不比其他男女聚集的场合更危险,但不能以此自小编安慰。性骚扰犯数字的告知编制起来非凡难堪,但尽量的从全美大学协会中查获数字,几乎有23%女硕士已经境遇过差异格局的性骚扰犯。南开里头的民意调查显示,这几个数字大约达到33.33%。受害者一般保持沉默,固然他们想寻求接济,但提供受性骚扰害的凭证却相当不方便。3月份引入了三个关于“对性说是”的电话机应用程序,目标是为着扶持伴侣澄清和笔录在三十秒内允许的性表现,但那项服务没有被使用,因为很少人在苹果公司的手机应用软件中找寻这么些应用程序。没有如此的先行布置,要在今后验证之前是还是不是同意是很难的。

许多性骚扰犯暴发在“红棕禁区”,时间介于开学到感恩节之间,一家给大学提供专业咨询的法律顾问公司,TrainED的一路创办者凯瑟琳Nash小姐如是说。那一个案件大多数发生在高等高校一年级学生中,纳什小姐认为那或者出于一年级新生刚先导独立,或是第一回被允许饮酒。她说四分之三的案件的一方或双边都有饮酒。各类公共健康商讨表达纵酒狂饮和性侵略往往是对称的,即使片段学员指责受害者咎由自取。ShirleyMorrison指责那“不负责任的纵酒行为”是那一个事件的主因,而他的孙女维多利亚是位于华沙的圣托马斯高校一年级学生,她就不去沾酒。明尼苏达大学的一年级学生托尼波顿说她学过的那一个作育课程提供的小窍门只是“常识”而已,并不或者针对各样人。“许多子女在高校里总觉得‘如若没有明了说‘不’,作者就可以继承做’”Nash小姐这么表达。

性骚扰犯受害者的辩护人奥利弗Rees安相信这一个题材的加重恶化是因为色情淫秽文章的溢出,互连网使性的想象变得更其清楚明了,而且只要有智能手机,每一种人要得到性的录影都十拿九稳。她说那使男人生出拥有性义务的觉察,另一方面,互连网也拉长了这一个标题标关注。性骚扰犯音讯的散播比数据媒体时期在此以前传出得更快更广,从而推进了越多的人去这样做。

因为性骚扰触犯刑律,必须在合理疑惑之上提供证据。为了抓好定罪率,克Rim林宫通过暴露大学名字,罚款,恐吓甘休拨款向大学施压,来处理这个只是用几率的平衡而付出的奸淫案件的证实。高校举行的钳制比监狱要轻,但最后协议到“职业生涯死刑”,1位大高校长如是说,而他雇佣了此前的大法官来任职他高校的尤其法庭。

原文如下:

【Economist】Campus sexual assault: Re-education

原创2016-09-30englishmags英文杂志😉

5:12Campus sexual assault出自英文杂志

Students starting college are trained in how to avoid committing
rape

AT THE University of Minnesota, some 5,700 new students arrived on
campus for orientation earlier this month. Each one of them has taken a
course on campus sexual assaults. A new law, which came into effect on
August 1st, made itmandatoryfor all university freshmen in the state of
Minnesota to be given training within the first ten days of the school
year. Minnesota is unusual for thebreadthof its decree, but students,
parents and university administrators across the country are asking the
same questions about how widespread campus rape is and what to do about
it.

California was the first state in the country to pass a
lawcolloquiallyreferred to as “Yes means yes”, which requires
affirmative consent for sex to be considered legal. New York followed
suit in 2015. Last year George Washington University became the first to
make training on sexual assault compulsory for new students. The White
House has its owntask forceon protecting students from sexual assault.

Crime statistics suggest universities are no more dangerous in terms of
sexual violence than other places where men and women bothcongregate,
butthat is not muchsolace. Statistics on sexual assault are notoriously
hard to compile, but the best attempt from the Association of American
Universities found that 23% of female undergraduates reported some form
of sexual assault. An internal poll at Harvard suggested almost a third
had. Victims of sexual assault rarely speak up; even when they do,
sexual assault can bedevilishlyhard to prove. Yes to Sex, a phone
application that was introduced in April, aims to help partners clarify
and document sexual consent in under 30 seconds. But use of the service
hasnot taken off: ithas only a few,mediocrereviews on the iTunes store.
Without such pre-planning, proving consent was or wasn’t given after the
fact is often difficult.

Many sexual assaults happen during the “red zone”, the time between the
start of the school year and Thanksgiving, says Kathryn Nash, co-founder
of TrainED, a company that counselscolleges on legal compliance. “A
highpercentage” of these cases involve freshmen. Miss Nash attributes
this to freshmen being on their ownand having access to alcohol for the
first time. She says that in 75% of cases one or both parties have been
drinking. Various public-health studies link sexual assault
andbinge-drinking, though some students think this is blaming the
victim. Sheryl Morrison, whose daughter Victoria is a freshman at Saint
Thomas University in Saint Paul, blames “irresponsible drinking
behaviour” for the majority of incidents, adding that her daughter does
not drink. Tony Burton, a freshman at the University of Minnesota, says
that most of the tips in the training he went through were “common
sense.” This is not the case for everyone. “A lot of kids arrive at
college thinking ‘if someone doesn’t say ‘no’ I can keep going,’” Miss
Nash explains.

Ann Olivarius, a lawyer for victims of sexual assault, believes the
problem has beenexacerbatedby the availability ofpornography. The
internet has made sexually explicit images and videos accessible to
anyone with a smartphone. This, she says, has engendered a sense of
sexualentitlementamong men. On the other hand, the web has focused
attention on the problem. News of sexual assault spreads much more
quickly and widely than it did before the era of digital media, which
may encourage more people to come forward.

Because rape violates criminal law, it must be proved beyond reasonable
doubt. To increase conviction rates, the White House is pressuring
universities—by naming them publicly, fining them or threatening to
withhold funds—to deal with more cases on campus, where rape has to be
proved just on the balance of probabilities. The sanctions a university
can administer are less severe than prison time, but on the extreme end
they can still amount to “career capital punishment” says one university
president, who is hiring former judges to staff his college’s tribunal.

——

Sep 24th 2016 | From the print edition:United
States
• 663 words

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