《管经济学人》社会风俗:同居(译文)

很快增强的同居并不曾导致婚姻的利落

大林两年前搬去和女对象同住的时候,他四姨准备阻碍:她担心结婚前就住在一起有损他女对象的声望,关联地,也有损她外孙子的名声,唯有当他们过年最后结婚了(男方家买房,女方家买车),她才会喜欢。那个两代人的争执在全部中华广大的家庭里三遍遍重演:在二零零三年从前,婚前同居平素被视为罪恶,而且是犯罪的。前日,那却是稀松平日的工作。

华夏社会的价值观习惯发生令人愕然的神速变动。1976年此前,大约只有1%的配偶婚外同居,而在二零零六年至2013年间结婚的人,2/5以上的有过婚前同居,此数额来源2009年和贰零壹壹年中华家园讨论:家庭调查。(见图表)有些人觉得那一个数额是低估的。目前一份中国婚姻家庭协会的法定调查报告显示,1981年后诞生的人走近六成在结婚前曾经和伴侣住在一起了,这几个小伙子同居的比例和美利坚联邦合众国的多寡基本一致。

中华,第二回结婚婚前同居百分比;数据来源:普Liss顿高校的于谢(音译)和中国社会科大学的余佳(音译)

婚前同居数据的滋长,无论哪个地方,都以同一的原因:个人主义的升高,女性职务的加强,结婚年龄的推移,婚前性行为避讳的减少。财富增进起了很马虎义–越来越多的伴侣可以担负独立生活而不再与家长同住。可是中国人的同居有其十分的性状。在富国国家,同居的伴侣日常比较贫穷,而中华越来越多接纳同居的年青人一般受过优秀教育,生活在方便的城市,比如巴黎、巴黎。住在一起更像是被视为“立异作为”的标志,普Liss顿大学的于谢(音译)和中国社会科高校的余佳(音译)如是说。

无论是在哪儿,同居数量的附加表明了对婚姻的不安:有个别伴侣从不烦心去考虑结婚的业务。不过在中华,同居差不离是结合的序曲–就好像大林和他女对象–并无其余选取。即便中国的一孩策略造成了子女性别比例的扭转,男尊文化也使乡村过剩的清苦男生只可以痛楚不堪地单独着,但婚姻的含义都以一块的,所以有的都会受过高等教育的女性也采用撇下婚姻。

局部上天国家同居的配偶实际是延伸了分享婚姻的一有的法定任务和无偿的小运,就和结婚的夫妇同一。在华夏,同居不受法律维护。未婚出生的子女很难报上户口只怕取得居住许可,而这几个,直接是提供健康敬服和经受教育等另外公共服务的基于。

在一九八〇时期,童贞是女人的重中之重花费,几乎没有配偶敢当众约会,更不用说住在一起了。未来华夏正处于性革命的长河当中–根据二零一一调研报告得出,约有七成的人有婚前性行为。不过,许多后生的中原人仍有局部封建想法,是有关他们长辈是怎么着的行事艺术,就算长辈们的同居比例也日益扩张,但他们中间半数以上人幸免再婚是由于她们的成年的儿女们反对。

原文:

【Economist】Social mores : Shacking up

原创2016-09-28englishmags英文杂志😉

4:19Social mores : Shacking up出自英文杂志

A rapid rise in cohabitation does not spell the end of marriage

WHEN Da Lin moved in with his girlfriend two years ago, his mother tried
to stop them: she feared that their living together unmarried would
sully his girlfriend’s reputation and, by association, his too. She will
be happy only after they finally marry next year (his family is buying
the apartment, hers the car). That generational clash is replicated in
thousands of families across China: cohabitation without marriagewas
longanathemaand officially illegal until 2001. Today it is commonplace.

China’s social mores are changing astonishingly quickly. Before 1980
around 1% of couples lived together outsidewedlock, but of those who wed
between 2010 and 2012, more than 40% had done so, according to data from
the 2010 and 2012 China Family Panel Studies, a vast household survey
(see chart). Some reckon even that is an underestimate. A recent study
by the China Association of Marriage and Family, an official body, found
that nearly 60% of those born after 1985 moved in with their partner
before tying the knot, which would put the cohabitation rate for young
peopleon a par withthat of America.

The number of unmarried couples living together is growing for many of
the same reasons it has elsewhere: rising individualism, greater
empowerment of women, the deferral of marriage and a decline in
traditional taboos on pre-marital sex. Greater wealth helps—more couples
can afford to live apart from their parents. Yet Chinese cohabitation
has distinctive characteristics. In rich countries, living together is
most common among poorer couples, but in China youngsters are more
likely to move in together if they are highly educated and live in
wealthy cities such as Beijing and Shanghai.Shacking upis seen as a sign
of “innovative behaviour”, say Yu Xie of Princeton University and Yu Jia
of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.

Elsewhere rising cohabitation represents thefrayingof marriage: many
couples never bother to wed. In China, however, cohabitation is almost
always a prelude to marriage—as for Da Lin and his girlfriend—rather
than an alternative to it. Marriage is still near-universal, although
theskewedsex ratio resulting from China’s one-child policy and a
cultural preference for boys has resulted in a surplus of poor rural men
who will remain unhappily single. Some highly educated women in
citiesforgomarriage too.

In some Western countries those who live together for an extended period
enjoy some of the same legal rights and obligations as married couples.
In China cohabitation carries no legal weight. And it is very hard for a
child born out of wedlock to acquire ahukou, or residency permit,
which provides access to health care, education or other public
services.

In the 1980s virginity was considered a woman’s chief asset and few
couples dared to date openly, let alone live together. Now China is in
the midst of a sexual revolution—some 70% of people have sex before
marriage, according to a study conducted in 2012. Many young Chinese,
however, still have conservative ideas about how their elders should
behave: although cohabitation is also on the rise among the elderly,
many of them avoid remarrying because their adult children oppose it.

——

Sep 24th 2016 | From the print edition: China · 527 words

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