The Economist 词汇解析(14)

【19】ebb and flow起伏消长;ebb 落潮,退潮

Protectionism, by contrast, hurts consumers and does little for
workers. The worst-off benefit far more from trade than the rich. A
study of 40 countries found that the richest consumers would lose 28%
of their purchasing power if cross-border trade ended; but those in
the bottom tenth would lose 63%. The annual cost to American consumers
of switching to non-Chinese tyres after Barack Obama slapped
on【14】
anti-dumping tariffs in 2009 was around $1.1 billion,
according to the Peterson Institute for International Economics. That
amounts to over $900,000 for each of the 1,200 jobs that were “saved”.

【11】Exhibit A 主要证据

【25】Corn Laws
《谷物法》,对各样谷类进口规定爱抚性关税的王法,于1846年被废止。

【16】hindsight 后见之明,事后诸葛卧龙

Openness delivers other benefits. Migrants improve not just their own
lives but the economies of host countries: European immigrants who
arrived in Britain since 2000 have been net contributors to the
exchequer【15】, adding more than £20 billion ($34 billion) to
the public finances between 2001 and 2011. Foreign direct investment
delivers competition, technology, management know-how and jobs, which
is why China’s overly cautious moves to encourage FDI disappoint (see
article).

In September 1843 the Liverpool Mercury reported on a large free-trade
rally in the city. The Royal Amphitheatre was overflowing【1】.
John Bright, a newly elected MP, spoke eloquently【2】 on the
merits of abolishing duties on imported food, echoing arguments made
in The Economist, a fledgling【3】 newspaper. Mr Bright told his
audience that when canvassing【4】, he had explained “how
stonemasons, shoemakers, carpenters and every kind of artisan suffered
if the trade of the country was restricted.” His speech in Liverpool
was roundly cheered【5】.

【12】plainly 直截了地点,坦白地,简单明了地

What have you done for me lately?

None of this is to deny that globalisation has its flaws. Since the
1840s advocates of free trade have known that, though the great
majority benefit, some lose out. Too little has been done to help
these people. Perhaps a fifth of the 6m or so net job losses in
American manufacturing between 1999 and 2011 stemmed from Chinese
competition; many of those who lost jobs did not find new ones. With
hindsight【16】, politicians in Britain were too
blithe【17】 about the pressures that migration from new EU
member states in eastern Europe brought to bear on public services.
And although there are no street protests about the speed and
fickleness【18】 in the tides of short-term capital, its ebb
and flow【19】
across borders have often proved damaging, not least
in the euro zone’s debt-ridden【20】 countries.

【5】roundly cheered 赢得满堂喝彩;roundly 有力地,广泛地

【3】fledgling新生的;fledged 羽翼已丰的;fully-fledged
成熟的,完全合格的

【13】unarguable 无可置疑的;unarguably 毋庸置疑地

【23】affront 侮辱,冒犯

【小结】(参考官方译文)

【15】exchequer 国库,(英国)财政部

These are the sensible responses to the peddlers of protectionism and
nativism. The worst answer would be for countries to turn their
backs on
必赢亚洲www565net,【24】** globalisation. The case for openness remains
much the same as it did when this newspaper was founded to support the
repeal of the Corn Laws【25】. There are more—and more
varied—opportunities in open economies than in closed ones. And, in
general, greater opportunity makes people better off. Since the 1840s,
free-traders have believed that closed economies favour the powerful
and hurt the labouring classes. They were right then. They are right
now.

【14】slap sth on sth 强制推行

【4】canvass (sb) (for sth) 游说,拉选票;to carry out a
canvass(名词); canvasser游说者,(选举中)监督投票的人

【24】turn sb’s back on sth 本义是转身背对着,引申为背弃,反对

Plainly【12】, Western voters are not much comforted by this
extraordinary transformation in the fortunes of emerging markets. But
at home, too, the overall benefits of free trade are
unarguable【13】. Exporting firms are more productive and pay
higher wages than those that serve only the domestic market. Half of
America’s exports go to countries with which it has a free-trade deal,
even though their economies account for less than a tenth of global
GDP.

1843年2月的一天,阿布贾皇家剧场挤满了人(overflowing),John•布莱特在台上喋喋不休地(eloquently)论述废除食物进口关税的重重便宜,那与当下新兴的(fledgling)《法学人》的看法相对应。他说,在拉票(canvassing)时她解释了一旦英帝国的交易受到限制,各行各业的手艺人会遭什么罪,他的演说赢得了满堂喝彩(roundly
cheered)。最近,两位United States总统候选人都不是自由贸易捍卫者(champion)。唐纳德·川普声称要舍弃(dismantle)北美自由贸易协定。希Larry·Clinton也抨击了他曾协助谈判的跨印度洋伙伴关系协定,那令她声名尽失(to
her
discredit)。人们对开放经济的影响充满忧患,而对贸易的斐然反对(backlash)只是内部3个表象而已。大商店因使用国外避税天堂(boltholes)逃税(dodge
taxes)而受到抨击。所以必须协助那二个经济开放过程中的输家(those who lose
out from openness)。自由贸易才是真的有益于穷人的方针(pro-poor
policy),其紧要证据(Exhibit A)是依靠(underpined
by)全世界贸易的爆炸式发展,世界二战后数十年里全世界生活档次取得巨大改正。坦白地说(plainly),新兴市镇国家命局发生了匪夷所思转变,那让上天选民不太舒适。但在境内,自由贸易的完好功效也无须置疑(unarguable)。相比之下,贸易敬重主义对消费者和工友都无益处。2008年前美利坚联邦合众国总统对中华轮胎强制履行(slapped
on)反倾销税之后,美利坚合众国顾客转而购买非中国产轮胎的开销高得多。贸易开放还会推动别样利益。三千年以来,进入大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国的欧洲陆地移民直接是大英帝国国库的净进献者(net
contributors to the
exchequer)。可是,满世界化不无遗憾。从1999到2013年,美利哥的创设业就业岗位多量精减,这与中国的竞争有关。事后看来(With
hindsight),对于欧盟东欧新成员国移民给公共服务造成的下压力,英国政客也太置若罔闻(blithe)。就算对于长时间资本连忙而无常(fickleness)的流动还没出现街头抗议,但资金的跨境涌入和流出(ebb
and
flow)却不时导致损害,尤其是在台币区里那多少个债台高筑(debt-ridden)的国度更是如此。要想消除这么些标题,还需更加多举措。对于再造就工人、辅助失掉工作工人再就业的政策方面,United States的支付卑不足道(paltry),仅为其GDP的0.1%。在那种场馆下,川普和希Larry都没有提议帮忙没有工作人群的方针,那很倒霉过(lamentable)。许多人认为贸易协定绑定签署国的做法是对民主的侵蚀(affront),但要么有措施通过共享的规则来强化国家自主权。建立国有公司征税的协调规范,协同控制资金可以流动,这一个都以对贸易保护主义和本土主义鼓吹者的睿智回应。最不好的结果是各国转而反对(turn
their backs on)全球化。本刊初创时辅助取消《谷物法》(the Corn
Laws),如今仍急需保证开放。与封痛经济体(closed
economies)比较,开放经济体(open
economies)会有更多机会,让国民走上富有(better
off)之路。19世纪40年份以来,自由贸易主义者一贯相信封乳房缺少症济体对权贵阶层有利,而对劳工阶层不利。他们的意见在当时是对的,近来后也是未可厚非的。

本期原文选自The Economist 二〇一六-10-01的Leaders板块小说Why they’re
wrong,释义来自印度孟买理工州立高阶七版、加州戴维斯分校高阶学习词典英汉双解第三版、21世纪大英汉词典、元照英美法词典等财富。倘若您也在求学The
Economist,欢迎订阅小编的文集The
Economist
,一起念书交换。英文修习者可以透过学习文中词汇,然后将商论的官方译文回译成英文,再对照英文原稿进行比较,找出异样,以此进步本人的英文水准。

【20】debt-ridden债台高筑的;-ridden 充满,充斥

【18】fickleness 白云苍狗;fickle 变幻不测的

注:本文仅供就学互换之用,不表示我观点。

【6】champion 捍卫者,拥护者

The backlash against trade is just one symptom of a pervasive anxiety
about the effects of open economies. Britain’s Brexit vote reflected
concerns about the impact of unfettered migration on public services,
jobs and culture. Big businesses are slammed for using foreign
boltholes【9】 to dodge taxes. Such critiques contain some
truth: more must be done to help those who lose out【10】 from
openness. But there is a world of difference between improving
globalisation and reversing it. The idea that globalisation is a scam
that benefits only corporations and the rich could scarcely be more
wrong.

【17】blithe 漫不留心的

It is hard to imagine, 173 years later, a leading Western politician
being lauded for a defence of free trade. Neither candidate in
America’s presidential election is a champion【6】. Donald
Trump, incoherent on so many fronts, is clear in this area: unfair
competition from foreigners has destroyed jobs at home. He threatens
to dismantle【7】 the North American Free Trade Agreement,
withdraw from the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) and start a trade
war with China. To her discredit【8】, Hillary Clinton now
denounces the TPP, a pact she helped negotiate. In Germany, one of the
world’s biggest exporters, tens of thousands took to the streets
earlier this month to march against a proposed trade deal between the
European Union and the United States (see article).

【22】lamentable 令人遗憾的,令人痛惜的;lament 对……表示失望;挽歌,悼词

【1】overflow本义是溢出、漫出;overflow (with sth) 挤满了人

【21】paltry 卑不足道的

【9】bolthole躲避处;bolt是螺栓的情趣,bolthole是螺栓孔,那里是引申义;bolthole
to dodge taxes 避税天堂(跟The Economist 二〇一六-9-17的Leaders板块文章A
giant problem中的tax heaven意思相近)

As our special report this week argues, more must be done to tackle
these downsides. America spends a paltry【21】 0.1% of its GDP,
one-sixth of the rich-country average, on policies to retrain workers
and help them find new jobs. In this context, it is
lamentable【22】 that neither Mr Trump nor Mrs Clinton offers
policies to help those whose jobs have been affected by trade or
cheaper technology. On migration, it makes sense to follow the example
of Denmark and link local-government revenues to the number of
incomers, so that strains on schools, hospitals and housing can be
eased. Many see the rules that bind signatories to trade pacts as an
affront【23】 to democracy. But there are ways that shared rules
can enhance national autonomy. Harmonising norms on how multinational
firms are taxed would give countries greater command over their public
finances. A co-ordinated approach to curbing volatile capital flows
would restore mastery over national monetary policy.

【2】eloquent 雄辩的,有口才的,传神的;副词eloquently;名词eloquence

【8】to sb’s discredit 使某人名誉扫地

【7】dismantle 本义是拆开,引申义为裁撤,打消

The real pro-poor policy

Exhibit A【11】 is the vast improvement in global living
standards in the decades after the second world war, which was
underpinned by an explosion in world trade. Exports of goods rose from
8% of world GDP in 1950 to almost 20% a half-century later. Export-led
growth and foreign investment have dragged hundreds of millions out of
poverty in China, and transformed economies from Ireland to South
Korea.

【10】lose out 丧失,得不到

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