“只有孤独恒常如新”

Elizabeth Bishop, PHOTO / Paris Review

前几日,我们来聊一个骚人,和一首诗。

伊Lisa白·毕晓普(伊丽莎(Lisa)白(Elizabeth)Bishop),曾被誉为U.S.20世纪最伟大的散文家之一。

伊丽莎(Lisa)白(伊Lisa白(Elizabeth))·毕肖普(1911年7月8日-1979年五月6日),美利哥享誉女小说家。她是美利坚同盟国1949-1950年份的桂冠小说家,并于1956年获普利策奖。代表作为《北方和南部——一个冷冰冰的青春》。

维基百科

她曾是美利坚合众国的桂冠散文家(Poet Laureate);杂谈荣获普利策奖(the Pulitzer
Prize
);随笔集拿到美利哥国家图书奖(the National Book Award)。

他身上具备各样各个的光环,得到了数不尽数的端庄,不过却告知同为散文家的情人罗伯特(Robert)(Bert)·洛威尔(Will)(罗伯特(Robert)(Bert)(Robert)罗厄尔(Lowell))说:「在自己的墓志上,一定要写下自家是大地最孤单的人」。

In 1974, Elizabeth Bishop seemed to have all the things a poet could
want: a teaching position at Harvard, a Pulitzer Prize, a National
Book Award, and a first-look contract with The New Yorker, which
almost always decided to publish her work. And yet she was
inconsolably unhappy. “When you write my epitaph,” Bishop said to
the poet Robert Lowell, “you must say I was the loneliest person who
ever lived
.”

  • “Hiding in Plain Sight: The loneliness of Elizabeth Bishop”, *The
    Nation

epitaph,墓志铭。

他几乎所有了一位小说家可以具有的成套荣耀,却偏偏要说:「When you write my
epitaph, you must say I was the loneliest person who ever lived. 」

我猜,这大概也是为什么,她论文的粤语译本取名为《只有孤独恒常如新》。

豆瓣读书

伊Lisa白(伊Lisa白)·毕晓普如此强烈的孤独感究竟从何而来?

她出生于美利坚同盟国麻省,是家园独女,才五个月时四叔便因病去世。小姑随即患上精神疾病,在毕晓普五岁时,大姑被威胁永久关进精神病院,从此二人再未相见。

经历了生离与死别之后,她被伯公母收养,在加拿大生存了几年。但鉴于这二老家境困难,她的祖父母随后得到监护权,将他从加拿大小镇接回美利坚同盟国麻省。但毕晓普缅怀伯公姑婆,整日郁郁寡欢,甚至患上哮喘。后来,外公外婆便将她送往了姨父姨母家中。

小毕晓普的小儿,就这样折腾于一个又一个亲属的家园,期间还碰着了姨父的性侵与虐待。也正因如此,她对男性充满了厌烦与恐怖(嗯,没错,她是同性恋)。

因为这段经历,在其后写给她的精神科医师的信中,毕晓普甚至说道,所有的男性都是患得患失粗暴的,只要有空子,他们迟早会危害女性。

Bishop later wrote to her psychiatrist. “I got to thinking that they
[men] were all selfish and inconsiderate and would hurt you if you
gave them a chance.”

“The lonely life of Elizabeth Bishop”, The Economist

儿时经验带来的外伤让她心头充满了愤慨。那股愤怒化为难过,悲伤又化为了故事集。

Whatever anger she felt in these early traumatic years turned into
sadness, and the sadness into poetry.

  • “Hiding in Plain Sight: The loneliness of Elizabeth Bishop”, *The
    Nation

长大后,毕晓普的情感生活也是联名周折。她此生最爱的农妇,巴西建筑师萝塔(Lota),于1967年自杀。后来的配偶Iris(Alice)(爱丽丝(Alice))(艾丽丝(Iris)(Alice))也遗弃了她,并嫁给了一个爱人。

毕晓普与萝塔的禁忌之恋被拍成一部异常唯美的电影,Reaching for the
Moon
,爱尔兰语片名Flores Raras,中译片名《月光诗篇》。

豆类电影

那部电影非常荡气回肠,若有时光,不妨找来看看。

在询问毕晓普的人生之后,大家大致也就可以知道,为啥他说自己是环球最孤单的人了吗。


毕晓普先后失去叔伯、阿姨、曾外祖父母、萝塔、Iris(爱丽丝(Alice)),童年辗转于各种亲戚家中,成年后又相差了友好的热土。她的毕生,充斥着告别与失去。在多重的打击之后,在得知萝塔自杀、又去阿丽丝(Alice)的她靠近崩溃。可似乎痛苦总能与好诗挂钩,毕晓普在最低落的时节里,写下了他最知名的诗句,One
Art
,《一种方法》。

But it was also at this low point on her high perch that she wrote,
over several painstaking drafts, what became her most anthologized and
best-loved poem, “One Art.”

“Hiding in Plain Sight: The loneliness of Elizabeth Bishop”, The
Nation

写下这首诗时,毕晓普内心充满痛苦,却在拼命说服自己:失去,也许并不曾那么可怕。她甚至在诗中,把「失去」称为一种模式。

诗在散装和泪水中写成,改了全套十七稿,正是如上文形容的那么,several
painstaking drafts,但改来改去,诗开篇第一句一贯没有变过:

Meanwhile, the poem’s recurring first line “The art of losing isn’t
hard to master
,” remained the same in all 17 drafts.

Coming to Terms with Loss in Elizabeth Bishop’s ‘One Art’ “, The
Atlantic

在电影《月光诗篇》中,米兰达·奥图扮演小说家毕晓普,完美细腻地演绎了这首诗(视频00’50 —
02’05)。假设场合条件允许,请一定,一定,一定要看那段视频,真的非凡振奋人心。

一经只想听诗的话,看到2分05秒就够了,视频后半有的是对小说家毕晓普的牵线与评论。故事集原文就在凡间,我们可以对照阅读。

“One Art” by Elizabeth Bishop

The art of losing isn’t hard to master;
so many things seem filled with the intent
to be lost that their loss is no disaster.

Lose something every day. Accept the fluster
of lost door keys, the hour badly spent.
The art of losing isn’t hard to master.

Then practice losing farther, losing faster:
places, and names, and where it was you meant
to travel. None of these will bring disaster.

I lost my mother’s watch. And look! my last, or
next-to-last, of three loved houses went.
The art of losing isn’t hard to master.

I lost two cities, lovely ones. And, vaster,
some realms I owned, two rivers, a continent.
I miss them, but it wasn’t a disaster.

— Even losing you (the joking voice, a gesture
I love) I shan’t have lied. It’s evident
the art of losing’s not too hard to master
though it may look like (Write it!) like disaster.

毕晓普采纳了一种非常传统的诗篇格局,Villanelle,维拉(维拉)内拉诗,是16世纪的法兰西丰裕风行的一种文体。


维拉(维拉(Vera))内拉诗又叫「十九行二韵体诗」,这之中的「十九行」很好领会,诗刚好十九行呗。而「二韵体」则是指随想有多少个韵脚。这一随想体裁对格式要求相当严格,除了押韵之外,还有两句诗需要按照确定举办双重。

(没看太懂?没事,下边有个例子)

维拉内拉诗最具代表性,可能也是豪门最熟识的,大概就是《星际穿越》中冒出的迪兰·Thomas的《不要温和地走进那些良夜》,Do
Not Go Gentle Into That Good Night

来听听曾赖以《沉默的羔羊》斩获Oscar影帝、在大热美剧《西部世界》里再一次克服观众的安东尼(Anthony)·霍普(Hope)金斯爵士(Sir
AnthonyHopkins)朗读的本子吧——不由得说一句,顶级好听的声音,我们耳朵可相对不要怀孕噢(哈哈哈哈哈哈哈)!

《不要温和地走进这一个良夜》

Do not go gentle into that good night, Old age should burn and rave at close of day;
Rage, rage against the dying of the light.
Though wise men at their end know dark is right,
Because their words had forked no lightning they
Do not go gentle into that good night.
Good men, the last wave by, crying how bright
Their frail deeds might have danced in a green bay,
Rage, rage against the dying of the light.
Wild men who caught and sang the sun in flight,
And learn, too late, they grieved it on its way,
Do not go gentle into that good night.
Grave men, near death, who see with blinding sight
Blind eyes could blaze like meteors and be gay,
Rage, rage against the dying of the light.
And you, my father, there on the sad height,
Curse, bless, me now with your fierce tears, I pray.
Do not go gentle into that good night.
Rage, rage against the dying of the light.

大家看来本人加粗的一对了吧?在维拉(维拉(Vera))内拉诗中,有两个句子会没完没了重复出现,专业术语叫做 Refrain,可以了然为「副歌」或者「叠句」。两个句子分别名叫
Refrain 1 和 Refrain 2,简称 A1 和 A2。

在这首诗中,

Refrain 1(A1)
Do not go gentle into that good night

Refrain 2(A2)
Rage, rage against the dying of the light.

世家应该也留意到了,这两行诗句不断重复出现。光是重复还不够,它们要严酷按照如下顺序出现:

Refrain 1 (A1) Line 2 (b)
Refrain 2 (A2)
Line 4 (a)
Line 5 (b)
Refrain 1 (A1)
Line 7 (a)
Line 8 (b)
Refrain 2 (A2)
Line 10 (a)
Line 11 (b)
Refrain 1 (A1)
Line 13 (a)
Line 14 (b)
Refrain 2 (A2)
Line 16 (a)
Line 17 (b)
Refrain 1 (A1)
Refrain 2 (A2)

*—— Wikipedia, “Villanelle”*

内部 Line 2,Line 4 等等,指的是论文的第X行,内容可以随心所欲,但 Refrain 1
和 Refrain 2 出现的职务一定是稳定的。

好了好了,解释完毕,我们看回毕晓普的诗。


The art of losing isn’t hard to master; so many things seem filled with the intent
to be lost that their loss is no disaster.
Lose something every day. Accept the fluster
of lost door keys, the hour badly spent.
The art of losing isn’t hard to master.
Then practice losing farther, losing faster:
places, and names, and where it was you meant
to travel. None of these will bring disaster.
I lost my mother’s watch. And look! my last, or
next-to-last, of three loved houses went.
The art of losing isn’t hard to master.
I lost two cities, lovely ones. And, vaster,
some realms I owned, two rivers, a continent.
I miss them, but it wasn’t a disaster.
— Even losing you (the joking voice, a gesture
I love) I shan’t have lied. It’s evident
the art of losing’s not too hard to master
though it may look like (Write it!) like disaster.

One
Art
 这首诗中,有两行相似的诗文也在频频重复出现。之所以说「相似」,是因为毕晓普没有严刻遵照维拉(维拉(Vera))内拉诗的格式要求,而是在不同的小节中对故事集举行了肯定改动。

很醒目,杂文的核心是「失去」。

先前时期,失去的是部分很小的事物。毕晓普称,有些东西似乎本来就是要失去的(so
many things seem filled with the intent to be lost),丢了也便不可惜。

继而,毕晓普说,有些东西是天天都有可能失掉的(lose something every
day)。这么些弄丢了的门钥匙(lost door keys),浪费了的年月(hour badly
spent),既然已经成为事实,又何必纠结烦扰,倒不如把「失去」当成一种办法。

下一场,她又轻轻地告诉读者,要操练「失去」那门艺术。这个忘记了的名字(names),计划要去旅行却没能去成的地点(where
it was you meant to travel)。失去这个东西,并不会带来不幸。

接着,她起来用自己的人生经验举例,说她失去了小姨的手表(I lost my
mother’s watch)——
毕晓普五岁便与患上精神病的亲娘分别,从此再未见过,这块手表意义重大,所以才会出现在诗中;前边我们也涉嫌,她刻钟候辗转于各类亲戚的家园,失去了一个又一个融洽暴发了留恋的家(three
loved houses went)。

继之,她又说,自己离家本土,失去了两座她深爱的都会(two
cities),甚至失去了河流与大陆(two rivers, a
continent)。她很系念这总体,却也清楚,哪怕失去了这样重要的事物,依然算不上什么不幸(I
miss them, but it wasn’t a disaster)。

终极,她终于提起自己失去的意中人(losing
you)。从劝读者,渐渐变成劝自己,她时时刻刻重复,就是为着暗示自己,「失去你」,也许并没有那么可怕。

但她的心里却洋溢了惨痛挣扎,甚至需要用第二个音响,(Write it!),来迫使自己把最坚苦的末梢写出来。

萝塔自杀,Iris也相差了他,这时的毕晓普似乎不是在为读者写诗,而是把诗写给了友好。她口口声声说「失去」算不上什么,可诗读下去,字里行间满篇都是零星与伤痛。就像有些谎言,说多了,自己便先信了。


伊Lisa白·毕晓普晚年在哈佛大学任教。她即刻的一名学生,梅格an
马尔斯hall,前年出版了一本传记,名为Elizabeth Bishop: A Miracle for
Breakfast
,讲述了毕肖普的传奇一生。

在重重网站上都能找到这本传记的书评,包括 《医学人》,The
Economist
,以及《印度洋月刊》,The Atlantic,等经典杂志。

《伦敦客》,The New
Yorker,还特地有成文介绍了毕晓普与萝塔和爱丽丝之间的爱情故事,她随想的灵感源于,等等。

我们只要感兴趣,能够在下边的参照网页中找到有关链接。其余还有前文提到的影视,《月光诗篇》,也得以找来看看。

哦,好了,先聊到这儿,我们早安。

One Art”, by Elizabeth Bishop https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poems/47536/one-art

Hiding in Plain Sight: The loneliness of Elizabeth Bishop”, The
Nation
https://www.thenation.com/article/hiding-in-plain-sight/

Elizabeth Bishop”, Poetry Foundation, https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poets/elizabeth-bishop

Elizabeth Bishop”, Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elizabeth\_Bishop

伊丽莎(Lisa)白(Elizabeth)·毕晓普”, 粤语维基百科 https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E4%BC%8A%E4%B8%BD%E8%8E%8E%E7%99%BD%C2%B7%E6%AF%95%E6%99%93%E6%99%AE

The lonely life of Elizabeth Bishop“, The Economist https://www.economist.com/news/books-and-arts/21718852-new-biography-sheds-light-elizabeth-bishop-one-americas-finest-poets-lonely

Coming to Terms with Loss in Elizabeth Bishop’s ‘One Art’ “, The
Atlantic
https://www.theatlantic.com/notes/2017/04/coming-to-terms-with-loss-in-elizabeth-bishops-one-art/524154/

月色诗篇”,豆瓣电影 https://movie.douban.com/subject/20521014/?from=subject-page

只是孤独恒常如新”,豆瓣读书 https://book.douban.com/subject/26269845/

‘Elizabeth Bishop: A Miracle for Breakfast’ More of a Four-Course
Meal
“, The Harvard Crimson
http://www.thecrimson.com/article/2017/4/15/elizabeth-bishop-review/

Elizabeth and Alice“, The New Yorker https://www.newyorker.com/books/page-turner/elizabeth-bishop-and-alice-methfessel-one-art

Elizabeth Bishop’s Art of Losing“, The New Yorker https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2017/03/06/elizabeth-bishops-art-of-losing

伊丽莎(Lisa)白 Bishop伊丽莎白(Elizabeth)·毕肖普诗选”,乐乎博客 http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog\_4b01ac520102vyge.html

Villanelle“, Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Villanelle

发表评论

电子邮件地址不会被公开。 必填项已用*标注