《经济学人》校园性侵,需要更教育(译文)

后来入学接受培养,如何防止让强奸

在明尼苏达大学,约产生5700称作入学新生在本月早来日子到校园与迎新会,并且每个人都列席了关于校园性侵的教程。8月1声泪俱下,明尼苏达州颁布了扳平项新的律,强制规定每个大学当刚开学的十天要吧同一年级入学新生进行培养,州政府对法令的广度范围来特的确定,但全国的学员,家长,和高等学校行政管理人员对于周边的校园强奸案是哪发生的与拖欠做来什么提出了一如既往的题目。

加利福尼亚州于举国率先独经了法律,口头引用”是,意味着是”,既要求自然允许性活动之合法性。纽约于2015年紧随其后。去年乔治华盛顿大学改为第一独就是性侵问题针对性大学入学新生进行强制培训的院校。白宫也树立了有关保护学生免遭性侵犯的特别工作组。

犯罪数字表明,从性暴力者谈,大学连无可比另外子女聚集之场地还危险,但不克之自我安慰。性侵犯数字之报告编制起来老困难,但尽量的从全美大学协会面临得出数字,大约有23%阴大学生曾着过差式样之人性侵犯。哈佛间的民意调查显示,这个数字几乎达到1/3。受害者一般保持沉默,即使他们感念寻求支援,但提供受性侵害的证据也十分困难。4月份引入了一个有关“对性说是”的电话机应用程序,目的是为救助伴侣澄清与著录在三十秒内允许的性情表现,但这项劳动没有被运,因为老少人当苹果公司的无绳电话机用软件面临摸索这应用程序。没有这么的事先计划,要于其后认证之前是否允许是特别不便的。

许多性侵犯发生在“红色禁区”,时间介于开学到感恩节之间,一下被大学提供专业咨询的法律顾问公司,TrainED的同步创始人凯瑟琳纳什小姐如是说。这些案件大多数起在大学一样年级学生遭,纳什小姐觉得这或由一年级新生刚开始独自,或是第一次于让允许饮酒。她说75%底案的一致在要双方都发生喝酒。各种官健康研究证实纵酒狂饮和性侵犯往往是对称的,虽然有学生指责受害者咎由自取。雪莉莫里森指责这“不负责任的纵酒行为”是这些事件的主因,而它底姑娘维多利亚凡置身圣保罗的圣托马斯大学如出一辙年级学生,她便无错过沾酒。明尼苏达大学之同年级学生托尼波顿说他模仿过的这些造就科目提供的小窍门只是“常识”而已,并无可知对每个人。“许多胎以大学里到底认为‘如果无明显说‘不’,我就是足以连续举行’”纳什小姐这么讲。

人性侵犯受害者的律师奥利弗里斯安相信这个题材之强化恶化是坐色情淫秽作品的浩,互联网使性的想象变得进一步清楚明了,而且若发生智能手机,每个人一旦得到性的录影都易使反掌。她说就如果男人发生拥有性权利的发现,另一方面,网络也增长了这个问题的关心。性侵犯新闻之不胫而走比数据媒体时代之前传出得更快还常见,从而助长了再多的人数失去这么做。

盖强奸触犯刑法,必须在成立怀疑之上提供证据。为了增进定罪率,白宫通过曝光大学名字,罚款,威胁已拨款向高校施压,来处理这些只是用概率的抵要吃起底强奸案件的证明。学校推行的牵制比监狱要爱,但最终协议到“职业生涯死刑”,一各项大学校长如是说,而他雇佣佣了先的审判员来任职他学的特别法庭。

初稿如下:

【Economist】Campus sexual assault: Re-education

原创2016-09-30englishmags英文杂志;)

5:12Campus sexual assault源于英文杂志

Students starting college are trained in how to avoid committing
rape

AT THE University of Minnesota, some 5,700 new students arrived on
campus for orientation earlier this month. Each one of them has taken a
course on campus sexual assaults. A new law, which came into effect on
August 1st, made itmandatoryfor all university freshmen in the state of
Minnesota to be given training within the first ten days of the school
year. Minnesota is unusual for thebreadthof its decree, but students,
parents and university administrators across the country are asking the
same questions about how widespread campus rape is and what to do about
it.

California was the first state in the country to pass a
lawcolloquiallyreferred to as “Yes means yes”, which requires
affirmative consent for sex to be considered legal. New York followed
suit in 2015. Last year George Washington University became the first to
make training on sexual assault compulsory for new students. The White
House has its owntask forceon protecting students from sexual assault.

Crime statistics suggest universities are no more dangerous in terms of
sexual violence than other places where men and women bothcongregate,
butthat is not muchsolace. Statistics on sexual assault are notoriously
hard to compile, but the best attempt from the Association of American
Universities found that 23% of female undergraduates reported some form
of sexual assault. An internal poll at Harvard suggested almost a third
had. Victims of sexual assault rarely speak up; even when they do,
sexual assault can bedevilishlyhard to prove. Yes to Sex, a phone
application that was introduced in April, aims to help partners clarify
and document sexual consent in under 30 seconds. But use of the service
hasnot taken off: ithas only a few,mediocrereviews on the iTunes store.
Without such pre-planning, proving consent was or wasn’t given after the
fact is often difficult.

Many sexual assaults happen during the “red zone”, the time between the
start of the school year and Thanksgiving, says Kathryn Nash, co-founder
of TrainED, a company that counselscolleges on legal compliance. “A
highpercentage” of these cases involve freshmen. Miss Nash attributes
this to freshmen being on their ownand having access to alcohol for the
first time. She says that in 75% of cases one or both parties have been
drinking. Various public-health studies link sexual assault
andbinge-drinking, though some students think this is blaming the
victim. Sheryl Morrison, whose daughter Victoria is a freshman at Saint
Thomas University in Saint Paul, blames “irresponsible drinking
behaviour” for the majority of incidents, adding that her daughter does
not drink. Tony Burton, a freshman at the University of Minnesota, says
that most of the tips in the training he went through were “common
sense.” This is not the case for everyone. “A lot of kids arrive at
college thinking ‘if someone doesn’t say ‘no’ I can keep going,’” Miss
Nash explains.

Ann Olivarius, a lawyer for victims of sexual assault, believes the
problem has beenexacerbatedby the availability ofpornography. The
internet has made sexually explicit images and videos accessible to
anyone with a smartphone. This, she says, has engendered a sense of
sexualentitlementamong men. On the other hand, the web has focused
attention on the problem. News of sexual assault spreads much more
quickly and widely than it did before the era of digital media, which
may encourage more people to come forward.

Because rape violates criminal law, it must be proved beyond reasonable
doubt. To increase conviction rates, the White House is pressuring
universities—by naming them publicly, fining them or threatening to
withhold funds—to deal with more cases on campus, where rape has to be
proved just on the balance of probabilities. The sanctions a university
can administer are less severe than prison time, but on the extreme end
they can still amount to “career capital punishment” says one university
president, who is hiring former judges to staff his college’s tribunal.

——

Sep 24th 2016 | From the print edition:United
States• 663 words

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